Saturday, August 31, 2019

Benchmarking in Islamic Finance: Issues and Challenges Essay

In Islam, fixing the price of commodities is not allowed as the increase of the price is caused by practice of supply and demand in the market. Hence in this case, benchmarking for the products is not allowed. It is can be reflected from of the Hadith of Prophet Muhammad S. A. W. Narrated by Anas Ibn Malik, â€Å"The people said: Apostle of Allah, prices has shot up, so fix prices for us. Thereupon the Apostle of Allah (PBUH) said: â€Å"Verily, Allah S. W. T. determines the climate of economic affluence and gloom. I do not want to take any action to fix the prices because I do not want, later in hereafter, any among you to demand for the return of your property and blood from me because of my tyranny (in fixing the prices). † In the above hadith, the practice of fixing price is clearly condemned by Prophet Muhammad S. A. W. The Prophet S. A. W declared the act of fixing price as injustice towards the seller if the price is fluctuated due to the normal market forces. But the second school of taught disagree with not fixing the price. They argued that the fluctuation in the price of commodities at the time of Prophet Muhammad S.  A. W was due the normal market forces i. e. supply and demand of the commodity in the market. But nowadays the prices fluctuate more due to seller’s speculation rather than supply and demand of the product. In this case the price of the commodities should be fixed by the authorities. Hence benchmarking in this case is allowable by the Scholars. In financial industry, several different methods of pricing business loans have appeared over the years including cost-plus loan pricing, price leadership loan pricing, below-prime loan pricing, and costumer profitability analysis. Many business loans today are priced directly of money market interest rates, with narrow profit margins reflecting intense competition for the best business customers. Some of the profit/interest rates used in the market is as follows: (1) Overnight Policy Rate (OPR); (2) London Interbank Offered Rate (LIBOR); (3) Kuala Lumpur Interbank Offered Rate (KLIBOR); (4) Cost of fund (COF); and (5) Base Financing/Lending Rate (BFR/BLR). Issues: Islamic Finance has been established to save Muslim world from the effects of Riba. But the problem that has been seen is the benchmarking system of Conventional Banking practiced by Islamic Banks. Islamic Finance that has been mentioned by some authors as â€Å"Ethical Finance† which is the system of justice for the community and free from Riba, gharar and Mysir cannot practice the conventional benchmarking for its products. It has also been known that Islamic Finance deals in assets backed financing rather than debt based financing. Hence a proper Islamic based benchmarking system needs to be developed and implemented to overcome the issue of using conventional benchmarking for Islamic banking products. According to Sheikh Taqi Usmani, Islamic banks and financial institutions should get rid of such practice as soon as possible. He argued that using interest rate as a benchmark for halal products is not desirable and it does not reflect the basic philosophy of Islamic economy and hence making no impact on the system of distribution. It is also been said that the current benchmarking system does not make IFIs products haram. According to Taqi Usmani, ‘’If all the pillars of sale is valid from Shariah point of view, just mere use of interest rate as a benchmark cannot invalidate whole sale’’. According to Sheikh Yusuf DeLorenzo (2009) ’A benchmark is no more than a number, and therefore non-objectionable from a Shariah perspective. If it is used to determine the rate of repayment on a loan, then it is the interest bearing loan that will be haram. LIBOR as a mere benchmark has nothing to do with actual transaction or more specifically with the creation of revenue or return’’. Alternative Models for Islamic Benchmarking: There are different models being suggest by the scholars such as Rate of Profit Mechanism Model proposed by Abd al Hamed al-Ghazalie According to him, this can be achieved by analyzing the rate of profits in the money market. He proposes that it is a more rational way that promotes justice for all and fits the nature of economics. â€Å"According to Sheikh Muhammad Taqi Usmani, the purpose can be achieved by creating a common pool which invests in asset-backed instruments like musharakah, ijarah, etc. If the majority of the assets pool is in tangible form, like leased property or equipment and shares in business concerns etc, its units can be sold and purchased on the basis of their net asset value determined on periodical basis. These units ay be negotiable and may be used for overnight financing as well. Banks having surplus liquidity can purchase these units and when they need liquidity, they can sell them. This arrangement may create inter-bank market and the value of the units may serve as an indicator for determining the profit in murabahah and leasing also. † Another model is presented by Dr. Aznan Hassan. According to him there should be different OPR for Islamic Banks that should be develo ped by Bank Negara Malaysia. But it can create the problem of hedging. If the conventional market rate is more favourable people will go for it and if the market rate of Islamic market is better people will opt for it. In the end the conventional market will be on safe side as the Islamic market is very small and the rate will tend to be higher as compare to conventional market. There are few others model that were suggested by the scholars such as Tobin’s Q Theory and Rate of Dividend of Islamic Bank Deposits and Investment Accounts Model etc that also gives the alternative ways of Islamic benchmarking. These models sounds good in theory but the problems can only be realized if such systems are implemented. Discussion/Conclusion: Some scholars argued that the conventional benchmarking is still allowed and it does not make the transaction haram. But IFIs still benchmark their products based on conventional loans. Profit rates are then decided on the bases of this benchmarking. Hence it is considered as back door to riba. Copying non Muslims is prohibited by the Prophet Muhammad S. A. W. It can be reflected for the Hadith, Narrated by al-Bukhaari (1865) from Ibn „Abbaas, who said: „? The Prophet (saws) came to Madinah and saw the Jews fasting on the day of Ashoora. He said, â€Å"What is this? † They said, â€Å"This is a good day, this is the day when Allah saved the Children of Israel from their enemy and Moosa fasted on this day. † He (the Prophet Muhammad) said, â€Å"We are closer to Moosa than you. † Hence the Prophet S. A. W fasted on this day and told the people to fast. This is the Sunnah that is proven from the prophet S. A. W, as he said, â€Å"If I am still alive next year, I will certainly fast the ninth (Narrated by Muslim, 1134). So to differentiate from jews, Prophet S. A. W recommended fasting on both 9th and 10th of Muharram. Similarly, riba is the practice of non Muslims hence it should not be benchmarked. Every Islamic Financial transaction should be different than what is nowadays practiced in the market. Although different models have been proposed by the scholars but the problem lies in implementing it. Such practices are going on from the long time but there is no one to step forward for implementing such system. It is because such system cannot work under capitalistic economic system as dual benchmarking will give rise to hedging and IFIs will suffer from it. Secondly, Islamic economy is based on real economy hence the risk is higher which will lead to higher Islamic benchmark rate as compare to conventional counterparts. Hence borrowers will prefer conventional system for loaning as compare to IFIs because interest rate charged by the conventional financial institutes will be less as compare to IFIs. Islamic benchmarking system can be failed under current economic system because the current economic system principles are different than Islamic economics principles. There could be no other solution but to shift from current economic system to Islamic economic system. It can only be possible if the entire Muslim countries unite and work on serious course for implementing Islamic economic system in Muslim community. After implementation of Islamic economic system, Islamic benchmarking will be possible and could be used by both conventional and Islamic financial institutes.

Friday, August 30, 2019

Bill Gates and DOS Operating System

Bill Gates has proven himself to be the wealthiest man alive. He initiated the monster computer software business called Microsoft and has produced the most widely used computer software programs to date. Bill Gates is a transgressive person meaning he has both helped society progressively and regressively. Bill Gates has progressively helped our society by introducing the basic operating system DOS in 1983. This basic operating system consisted of a single prompt, which allowed the user to complete tasks by typing in the right command line. When the press asked Gates what it took to create the Dos operating system, he replied, â€Å"Well, to create a new standard, it takes something that†s not just a little bit different. It takes something that†s really new and really captures people†s imagination.† (Microsoft Conference on Dos, 1984) When people saw the operating system, they were awestruck. Over ten million copies of Dos where sold during the first two years of sales. Society benefited from this operating system. By using it to run programs easily and efficiently, the Dos network allowed a whole new frontier of micro-management for businesses. Transactions could be saved to hard drives and easily located for later use. The average home computer user would have to take computer courses to learn the basic operations of the interfaces, which were available at the time. Dos offers a short instruction manual and also a set of easily understood operations. After Microsoft had gained control of the market with the Dos operating system, Bill Gates and his company Microsoft started on a new program that again would change the market. This alteration would not be in the home computer region, but the programming industry. The program was called the OS/2. â€Å"I believe Os/2 is destined to be the most important operating system, and possibly program, of all time. As the successor to Dos, which has over 10,000,000 system in use, it creates opportunities for everyone involved in Pc†s.† (Bill Gates, Os/2 Programmer†s guide). The program was a simple interface which made creating programs efficient and easy. Low-level programmers could write unthinkable programs in a fraction of the time it would take a team of programmers to complete programs. With this technology, programs that would help our society where brought to our reach faster. After setting up these two major projects, Bill Gates and Microsoft released windows 1.0. This version of Microsoft†s operating system was the first of many steps in the evolution of Microsoft being the monopoly it is today. The windows operating system allowed non-computer lingual people to manipulate a computer with ease. The progressive program allowed families to use their home computers to educate and entertain themselves. The major flaw with the windows operating system was that Bill gates and Microsoft produced windows with the basic drop-down menu. Macintosh had already copyrighted this, later; they brought Microsoft to court over the matter and won their settlement. With Microsoft windows being run on most PC†s, Bill Gates and Microsoft began work for upgrades. Through the evolution of technology, Microsoft has made four new version of the windows operating system, each one bettering the last. The interface has gotten more and more user-friendly. With the most recent version, windows 2000, you can actually learn all of the operations through the program†s tutorial. This self-education application allows easy understanding and use for the users. The Internet has attracted many people to buy a computer and with the windows operating system, users will have no problem adapting to the computer environment. One of the more recent programs that Microsoft has initiated is the Internet explorer. This program has progressively helped many businesses start web pages and has also allowed families get connected to the Internet. While the Internet explorer does help our society progressively, at the same time, it regressively helped the workers of Netscape Navigator. Microsoft included the Internet explorer free with every windows operating system package, starting from Windows 95 and up. Microsoft single handedly took control of the Internet browsing business. This made Netscape, the makers of Netscape navigator; make cutbacks in regards to their employees. Netscape brought Microsoft to court and won. Although the courts decision was guilty, it has not affected direct sales of their product. Bill Gates has also affected our society in regressive or negative ways. Over the course of Bill Gate†s working career with Microsoft, he has accumulated a wealth of $119.704 billion dollars. The U.S, population is only 274,231,556 as of Thursday, February 10, 2000. This means that each person has contributed $436.507 dollars toward his wealth, whether or not they are buying Microsoft products or not. While many people do not even own a computer, they have contributed to Microsoft through taxes and other means of financial Microsoft in itself is a regressive business when looked at through the eyes of a computer software business. Bill Gates almost ruined Macintosh Computer, but decided that it would be better to own them, rather then end the business. He now has turned them into an even larger corporation then before. † The next generation of interesting software will be made on a Macintosh, not on an IBM PC.† (Bill Gates, 1996) Bill Gates meant that he believes that the Macintosh will be the computer for tomorrow, not an IBM PC. By owning a large chunk of the Computer software industry, Microsoft has become a national monopoly. Most small time businesses cannot offer competition to a corporation such as Microsoft. Finally, Bill Gates has had a transgressive hold on society ever since the Microsoft Corporation began. He has helped our society by making the operating systems made by Microsoft and the other programs offered, available to us. Through the operating systems: stocks have risen, people are becoming open to the world through the Internet, and important medical research can be accomplished as well as hundreds of other useful task.

Thursday, August 29, 2019

Important Time in My Life Essay

There comes a time in our lives where we all have to face important decisions and challenges maybe taking examinations or starting a new job. For me, going to secondary school was an important time and was a big challenge. This can be a stressful and nerve racking experience for any eleven year old, unlike most of the people that started my school I didn’t know many people from my previous primary school, so they already had foundations and memories and did not really have to make new friends as importantly as I did. There was only 9 people in my year 6 and 7 went to the same school as I did. Before I knew it the six weeks holiday was over and the morning arrived with the new shoes and the shiny black blazer. Then I had to be walked to school by my Mum. I was reluctant to leave the comfort of knowing somebody but somehow found that extra confidence to walk into the school hall full of strangers. Luckily for me I attended football on Fridays and Saturday mornings and there was a boy from there. I straight away went and sat next to him and was very relieved. Little did I know we were sectioned off into forms and I had humiliated myself by walking into the other form’s turf instead of my own heroic Miss Watson form. After having a sixth form girl come show me the correct way in front of everyone and show me to my rightful place, I found that people started to come and talk to me and one girl especially called Jasmine who was also alone, started making conversation. I thought I would be able to stick with her the rest of the day, especially when our names were called out together for being in the same form. We spent the morning meeting our tutors and taking part in activities and games in order to get to know each other. As we were learning more and more about each other, I was fairly confident by lunch time I had made a friend in Jasmine, and got over being alone on my first day. Although, as I soon found out, Jasmine had got friends in other houses and forgetting me she soon ran off to go meet and play with them. I was too shy to go after her and introduce myself to a whole new group of people, instead I just stood against a wall by myself as I did not know what else to do or where to go. Looking back on this now I would never just stand against a wall by myself watching everybody making friends and enjoying their lunch time but at the time my shyness took over and that was it. Time passed slowly and there was still half an hour to go before I could be in the comfort of the classroom with the people I recognized again. I then got through the first day of an  important time of my life. Why was it important? Because it kick started my road to getting a higher education and making friends.

Wednesday, August 28, 2019

Financial check up report Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Financial check up report - Essay Example This shows how well I can manage my expenses in order to meet my income. My total expenses are lower than my income. This means that I am able to save part of my income. Lessons from this statement is that one should manage his expenses in such a way that it allows him to have savings for every income. The financial ratios show ones ability to repay any debts that he may incur. My basic liquidity ratio is 4.5666, which is higher than the recommended 3.0. This means that my liquid assets are able to repay any of the debts that I may have. This shows that one should always be in a financial situation that is able to support him in cases of debts. This is to say, the liquid assets of a person should always be able to settle debts without posing threats to the financial situation of a person. My revolving savings shows that my spending for my fixed budget was financed from my savings. However, the amount set aside for my fixed budget was not fully spent since there was arrears amounted to my savings. This teaches me that one should always set aside a given amount to cover for regular expenses such as insurance. The annual saving for retirement needs should always meet the budget expectations. My retirement saving plan, according to the statement, meets my budget expectations. In the statement, the amount needed for saving expenses is much higher than the amount needed to realize the retirement goal. This means that, my saving plan will meet my retirement goal. Lessons learned from this is that one should always be prepared to realize his goals. The total expenses in life are much higher than the total income replacement. This is where life insurance becomes essential. Getting into an insurance plan, according to the statement, means that I would be able to take care of my expenses in life at a lower value. The insurance needed is much lower than my total expenses, thus, my expenses will be

Tuesday, August 27, 2019

Industry Report Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2250 words

Industry Report - Research Paper Example The researcher will focus on individual performance for each of the brands, seek to evaluate the best performing, understand their market segmentation, and marketing mix. In this section, the researcher is going to argue out each and every vehicle brand depending on the consumer appreciation feedback and statistics about their luxurious products. Following the results released by Forbes Insights, data collected from have guided the multibillion dollar firm to come up with a comprehensive listing of the leading luxury automotive brands graded using a composite score that gives ranking according to customer satisfaction and loyalty of the customers to the vehicle brand (Maynard 32). Audi, an up-and-coming alternative luxury brand, has attracted a myriad of consumers over the past few years and this explains why the average price for one of its vehicles is now at $5, 000. This has been viewed as the greatest of all times improvement after the economy went on crisis and experienced a slow recovery due to external factors such as inflation; the auto industry has been bouncing back from the depths of 2009 where its sales hit the sea floor, but the thirst for luxury remains powerful. In 2011, Audi posted their highest sales ever in a market flooded by a myriad of locomotive manufacturers (Hoffmann and Ivan 66). The German automobile manufacturer is a member of the German Big 3 luxury automakers, which are BMW and Mercedes-Benz and are the three best-selling luxury automakers in the world. Audi produces fully guaranteed galvanized cars to prevent corrosion and is recognized as the first auto-maker to introduce this module in its body shell after which Porsche followe d. Bayerische Motoren Werke AG (Bavarian Motor Works) is a German automobile that was founded in 1916 and has never disappointed since then. It is the parent company of Rolls Royce Motor Cars, has a new class model which was a line of compact sedans

The LPN To Transition 2. APA Formating Transition into Scholarly Essay - 1

The LPN To Transition 2. APA Formating Transition into Scholarly Writing - Essay Example There are many differences in the roles of LPN and RN, as RNs has more authority and power than an LPN. Registered nurses have a larger role in the healthcare of patients. The duty of RN is deeply to analyze the issues pertaining to the health of a patient and to relate the condition of a patient with the health status of the patient. Licensed practical nurse does not have a wide scope, but they are more tasks oriented and the working criteria of LPN are less than that of RN (Weydt, 2009). The main role of RN is to perform an initial assessment of the patient as it an essential part of the duty. LPNs can perform assessments but not the initial assessment. As the criteria of work of an RN are much greater than an LPN, it has to perform more duties that include the formulating the diagnosis of a patient and to form a care plan for the patient. The primary role of LPN is to make sure that the formulated care plan made by RN is put into action. RNs have the authority to delegate the work to LPNs (Ebright, Patterson, Chalko, & Render, 2003). LPNs have no authority over RN, but they are only allowed to work on those tasks that lie in their scope as defined by their license of that state. At some workplaces, RN directly supervises the work of an LPN and make sure that the LPN performs his task in the provided manner. LPNs have no authority to make changes in the healthcare plan of the patient but if there in a need to do so, the LPN must call and report the issue to RN and get their approval, to do the needful changes. There are various advantages of an RN as compared to LPN in this field. Few strategies and suggestions can help in the transition of LPN to RN and become successful in the work. To transit from License practical nurse to Registered nurse, the applicant must either take an Associate Degree in Nursing (ADN) or a

Monday, August 26, 2019

Review the current and potential future treatments for Parkinsons Essay

Review the current and potential future treatments for Parkinsons Disease - Essay Example It is the second most common neurgenerative disorder that affects about 1 million people in America and about 50,000 people in United Kingdom (Jankovic, 2007). The disease is characterized by a gradual loss of the muscular functioning and controlling, resulting in trembling limbs, stiffness and impairment balance. In other words, the disease causes the disorder of movement, motor weakness, spasticity, sensory loss, and cerebellar ataxia (Waters, 2008). It causes slowness of the movement or abnormal involuntary movement (dyskinesia) such as, tremor, chorea, mycolonus, tics and dystopian (Driver-Dunckley et al., 2003). The disease immensely affects sub cortical brain structures (basal ganglia) causing movement disorders. Parkinson’s disease results from the malfunction and the death of the nerve muscle of the brain cells called neurons. It affects neurons present in the substantia nigra. This part of brain controls the movement and coordination of the body part with the brain (C haudhuri & Tolosa, 2009). Parkinson’s disease affects substantia nigra, eventually decrease production of dopamine in the brain causing individuals to lose control the movement normally (Olanow & Koller, 1998). Symptoms of Parkinson’s disease are classified as Primary symptoms that are related to involuntary and voluntary motor functions usually occur on one side of the body. When the symptoms of the Parkinson appear they are mild that eventually progress with the time (Chaudhuri & Tolosa, 2009). According to the study of Waters (2008), by the time the symptoms of Parkinson’s disease appear, individuals would have already lost about 60 to 80 percent of the dopamine cells (cells that regulate and control the movement). The secondary symptoms appear when the Parkinson’s disease becomes progressive causing the loss and control of the body movement and damage of brain cell (Waters, 2008). The following is the list of

Sunday, August 25, 2019

The system of Assessing for Elementary School Essay

The system of Assessing for Elementary School - Essay Example This was treated as a successful method to make them enjoy the essence of the classroom. One more thing is that children are attracted towards colors, so they take special attention in listening, and even those who do not pay attention will try to concentrate a little than what they had been doing before.Recommendations for the pictographic test:1. It should be noted particularly that a classroom is composed of all levels of students starting from dull to brilliant students, so any system, for instance, should be implemented with the notion to improve the quality of learning of all levels of students. In the case of dull students, the standard of understanding and remembering becomes quiet doubtful.Because not all the dull students will have benefits from this method. 2. The teacher should concentrate more on the performance of dull students than those who show considerable improvement.3. The choice of colors could be more of a bright nature.4. When the teacher asks the question in t erms of showing a picture and guessing, he or she should come voluntarily and help the students till they get accustomed to this method.5. This method could also be applied while conducting tests for higher class students but they should be given a partial picture so as to enhance their reasoning power and ideas.6. Finally, if a student fails even in this method the teacher should find out the spot where the student has the difficulty. Because while analyzing this test method it is comparatively an easy one to understand the lessons.

Saturday, August 24, 2019

Foreign Influence on English Football Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3500 words

Foreign Influence on English Football - Essay Example The article written by Patrick Mcgovern challenges the basis behind the import of foreign players into English football. He states that the global market is a free process which changes the nature of the economic competition. Having investigated hiring practices for the English football league during 1946 to 1995, one aspect of the conclusions was that globalization might be a reasonable thing to expect. It points out that global influence is not just about players. It is also about economic social and political factors that can have either national or indeed British origins. However, this article also points out that there is consistency in the types of foreign players that are chosen to play in the English league. This can be in terms of climate, culture, language and, the style of football. This would fit countries such as Scotland, Ireland, northern Europe and Australia. However, the article fails to point out that quite a number of foreign players have come from South America, s uch as Argentina or Brazil. Their influence cannot be discounted. Therefore, the choice of fine players is partly due to culture choices.

Friday, August 23, 2019

Writing assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Writing - Assignment Example Daniel medical attention amazed me. He quickly requested me whether I needed any assistance immediately I checked in the clinic. He loved and sympathized with his patients. He would offer adequate medical counseling to patients. You never pursued but compassion for humanity and alleviation of patients’ suffering. When men of his generation were making history in the medical field, Daniel you courageous performed successfully the first-open heart surgery in the USA. Daniel also made history as the first person to employ interracial staff in his Provident hospitalHe was a man on a great mission, never backtracked on any challenges. He was best as everything that he dreamed of accomplishing. He was a man who commanded great respect in medical history. Everybody was proud of his brain and humane heart. I believed in his values and abilities. A man who I could only admire, respect and take great inspiration from. Daniel, you were very special to my heart, I am Grateful for the little time we spent together here on earth. You kept the faith and completed your race. Rest in eternal peace Daniel Hale Williams, (January 18, 1856- August 4,

Thursday, August 22, 2019

Primary Sources Essay Example for Free

Primary Sources Essay Primary sources are the original documents that serve as a springboard for other theorists, scientists, authors, and scholars to write additional works that are added to the subject’s base of literature. Primary sources are the first indications of a particular idea or a landmark study. They serve as a scientific starting point. Secondary sources are based on extrapolations of the original version with new additions and the interpretation of the past. For the most comprehensive literature review, both types of sources should be included in the research for a particular topic. The most powerful advantage to the use of primary sources is the assurance that these documents have not been marred or misrepresented through inaccurate interpretations or external motivations. The complexity of history makes it clear that a number of motives could influence the portrayal of original sources. When citing the works of others use only part of the source and rarely include the full context of the document. Details, the writing style, and purpose intended by the original author are important components available to researchers who choose to include primary sources in their bibliographies. The most practical advantage of secondary sources is their increased availability. Primary sources often originated decades or centuries ago. Much of the context that influenced those pieces is drastically different now and a modern interpretation might be the only way to apply the original findings to today’s world. The addition of strong secondary sources can strengthen the scope of a literature review. Lastly, most students have the most experience with secondary sources. This supposition was supported by the findings in a recent study by Oldenburg (2005). While psychology professors preferred to use primary sources, they usually reserved the assignments of these readings to smaller, more advanced classes. With the progression in their education, students gain more exposure to original sources. Most will identify the need to incorporate both primary and secondary sources into their research.

Wednesday, August 21, 2019

The essay talks of a woman Essay Example for Free

The essay talks of a woman Essay The first essay talks of a woman who loved and treasured her husband even in death. It talks of a widow who was married in Ephesus. The essay highlights her as being very beautiful. It was a culture to mourn your husband by beating the naked breast in front of the crowd and pulling off one’s hair. But this widow went on to follow the dead into his tomb where he mourned for five days. (Heinemann, 1913, p. 229-235). It is ironical that whoever could console her to stop mourning her late husband was a soldier who was guarding the bodies of some robberies that had been crucified after her friends and relatives were unable to do it. It’s also ironical that a dead body was stolen as the soldier was consoling a widow who was also mourning over a dead body. Its also ironical the dead body that made the woman mourns for five days without food or water is the one that was used to replace the lost dead body of the robber. ( Heinemann ,1913, p. 229-235) The second story talks of a man who loved his wife so much that he sacrificed all what he had and sold it to entertain his wife. It is ironical that he sold all the luxuries that gave him pleasure only remaining with a falcon just to please or rather buy the love of his wife and yet remain a poor man the rest of his life. Federigo loved his wife such that he even offered to slaughter his only remaining asset the falcon which he even loved more than any of his wife in order to serve it to the visitors of her wife. (Kaplan, 2006, p. 2 -3) It is too ironical that he sold everything to please his wife and remain poor and at the end his wife did not accept him. It is also ironical that that at his dying moment, the boy asked for the falcon and it lacked, he died. Irony is also seen when Giovanna instead of loving his husband when he was wealthy and having a lot to offer, he loved him most when he was poor and had nothing to offer. (Kaplan ,2006, p. 2 -3,) Both stories relate to denial for love of another person. In the first essay we see the widow has much love for her late husband but opts to give his body to replace the stolen thief’s body and not see another man whom he loves die. It is just funny how loves both them but also wise of her sacrifice the dead in order to save the living. (Heinemann ,1913, p. 229-235) The second essay opted to be poor by selling everything to show his wife love. At the end of the essay the wife appreciates his husbands love and thus reciprocates it by refusing to be re-married to wealthy merchants. This love is seen even in death where both Federigo and Giovanna share the same tomb. (Kaplan, 2003, p. 2 -3). Conclusion, According to my evaluation of the two stories, I think the second story is more effective on how it uses its narration skills and how it describes the whole event of love and fate. Though the story is tragic it end in comic way where there is joy after we note that afterwards the couple loved each other even in death unlike in the first story where the woman was torn between two loves and is why he had to give up one and take in the other. List of Reference: Heinemann W; (1913) Petronius, Satyricon, The Macmillan Company, 1913, ch. 111- 112, pp. 229-235 Kaplan H. L . (2006). Federigo Alberighi and Monna Giovanna SOCAN Available at http://www. thrinberry-frog. com Accessed on June 30, 2008.

Tuesday, August 20, 2019

Chassis Strength Is Important Aspect Engineering Essay

Chassis Strength Is Important Aspect Engineering Essay Chassis strength is important aspect that needs to be considered in the study of a road vehicle design. Chassis or frames are the main structure for road vehicle design. Since the strength of chassis can be effected on stability and safety of vehicle. Because most of load are fully distribute along the chassis. Its will be have some critical point due to section that have more load over the beam section especially driver weight. This chapter introduce about the analysis of members under axial loading, beams, and frames. Structural members and machine components are generally subject to a push-pull, bending or twisting type of loading. Beams play significant roles in many engineering application, including building, bridges, automobiles and airplane structures. Beams are commonly subjected to transverse loading, which is a type of loading that creates bending in the beam. The definition of beam is a cross-sectional dimension of structural member that are relatively smaller than its length. A beam subjected to a distributed load is shown in figure 1.1. formulation to generate finite element models. However, the axial loading is defined as a linear element for the structure. For example in this section is employed to introduce the basic ideas of one dimensional element and shape function. Steel columns are commonly used to support loads from various floors of structural. The loading from the floors causes vertical displacements of various points along the column. Nowadays, with the high level of CAD to design, added with a computational technique in simulation and greater understanding in finite element analysis will help engineers to produce a more efficient in chassis building which is have lighten weight but have sufficient strength. This method also can improve of car from any factor such as twisting or actually have some deformation to the chassis. Analysis of strength chassis of car is the best answer to solve this problem. A  ¿Ã‚ ½UiTM Shell Eco-Sprint ¿Ã‚ ½ car which will participate in Shell Eco Marathon Asia 2012 was selected in this study to investigate about their chassis strength and each critical point that have for every chassis section. This project will focus on the Finite Element Analysis (FEA) analysis as a method to analyze the strength characteristic of the car design with different of chassis types. After that, the obtained result will be compared each other to choose which are the best strength chassis. The competition is split into two classes. The Prototype class focuses on maximum efficiency, while passenger comfort takes a back seat. The Urban Concept class encourages more practical designs. Cars enter one of seven categories to run on conventional petrol and diesel, biofuels, fuel made from natural gas (GTL), hydrogen, solar or electricity. Over several days, teams make as many attempts as possible to travel the furthest on the equivalent of one litre of fuel. Cars drive a fixed number of laps around the circuit at a set speed. Organisers calculate their energy efficiency and name a winner in each class and for each energy source. The scopes of safety, teamwork, design, and technical innovation will be including in mark for this competition. The competition inspires the engineers of the future to turn their vision of sustainable mobility into reality, if only for a few days. It also sparks passionate debate about what could one day be possible for cars on the road. 1.3 Problem statement When Formula 1 began in early 1950 ¿Ã‚ ½s, most of Europe racing teams used basic space frame chassis(Figure 1.2),that formed from the comprised of a series beams to be the complete shape of the car and consist of the engine, suspension, driver, and other vehicle sub-system. One of the main advantages of using the space frame design is its easy and logical construction process, of which can be performed by student with intermediate knowledge and experience using basic welding and metal working equipment. For the UITM Shell Eco-Sprint car, we choose space frame chassis as our type chassis design. The chassis must have the best possible strength to minimize deformation to vehicle and consequently make the chassis more safety from any dangerous. And also prevent from any crack happen to the chassis. In early stage, the chassis is designed with a lot of weakness in terms of strength of materials. This is because the load applied to the chassis is different from many directions. As example the driver load, tires holder, engine load. The entire factor will effect to the chassis strength and can make some deformation for any critical point. This project  ¿Ã‚ ½UiTM Shell Eco-Sprint ¿Ã‚ ½ will be started with design and modeling the car chassis using CAD software (SOLIDWORKS 2010). This research will focuses on 3D analysis. After the design is completed, it will be go through with Finite Element Analysis (FEA) modelling and mesh optimization. The strain, stress and deformation of the chassis will be investigated and analyzed by using application in Solidwork software. The strain, stress and deformation of the chassis also will be investigated and analyzed by using application in Abaqus software. Besides that, there have two drawing with different construction. The drawing is modelling by using Solidworks software. First, the beam of chassis constructed with the tube hollow without any modification to the beam surface. For the second, the beam of chassis was constructed with the same tube hollow but has some modification with horizontal holes along the beam structure as in figure 1.3. This two sample analysis will analyzed by using ABAQUS software and compared which one less deformation or the hole can make much critical strength or can increase the deformation of the chassis.The parametric study for this project is thickness and holes diameter of hollow tube. 1.3 Objective of research To ensure the successfulness of this research, the objective must be achieved. The objective of this research is as follow: 1) To reduce weight and making components more compact. 2) To improve the strength and rigidity characteristics. 3) To obtain the light weight chassis but have sufficient strength. 2.0 Introduction Finite Element Analysis (FEA) consists of a computer model of a design or material that is analyzed purposely to get a specific result. It is widely applied in a new product design, and existing product. A company is able to verify a proposed design will be able to perform to the clients specifications prior to manufacturing or construction [1]. Modifying an existing product or structure is utilized to qualify the product or structure for a new service condition. In case of structural failure, FEA may be used to help determine the design modifications to meet the new condition [1]. Nowadays, many of industry have analyzed by using 2D modelling and 3D modelling. While 2-D modelling conserves simplicity and allows the analysis to be run on a relatively normal computer, it tends to yield less accurate results [1]. 3-D modelling, however, produces more accurate results while sacrificing the ability to run on all but the fastest computers effectively [1]. Inside each of these modelling schemes, the programmer can insert various functions to make the system perform linearly or non-linearly. Linear systems are far less complex and generally do not take into account plastic deformation while non-linear systems do account for plastic deformation, and many also are capable of testing a material all the way to fracture [1]. 2.1 How does Finite Element Analysis work. Finite Element Analysis (FEA) is one of the most common examples of engineering analysis and one of most commonly used and powerful feature of the CAD software. It can be applied in structural and FEA usually used in problems where analytical solution not easily obtained. To carry out the analysis of the object by using FEA, the object is dividing into finite number of small elements of shapes like rectangular or triangular. FEA used as a complex system of points called nodes which make a grid called a mesh [1]. This mesh is programmed to contain the material and structural properties which define how the structure will react to certain loading conditions. Nodes are assigned at a certain density throughout the material depending on the anticipated stress levels of a particular area [1]. Regions which will receive large amounts of stress usually have a higher node density than those which experience little or no stress. Points of interest may consist of fracture point of previously tested material, fillets, corners, complex detail, and high stress areas [1]. The mesh acts like a spider web in that from each node, there extends a mesh element to each of the adjacent nodes. This web of vectors is what carries the material properties to the object, creating many elements [1]. The figure 2.1 below show the sample of meshing step 2.2 Advantages of Finite Element Analysis The Finite Element Analysis is very important for every design. A new design may be modelled to determine its real world behaviour under a multiplicity of load category; hence it can be adjusted earlier to the design of drawings. There have many of advantages by using Finite Element Analysis. Firstly, it is very important tools for stress and strain analysis because it provides accurate information. Once a detailed CAD model has been developed, FEA can analyze the design in detail, saving time and money by reducing the number of prototypes required [2]. Then, this method can help to modify an existing product which is experiencing a field problem, or is simply being improved, can be analyzed to speed an engineering change and reduce its cost [2]. That is the case of study where some analysis are run in the computer to see how the occurrence of a stress concentrator affects the behaviour of the elements. If the concentration is high, the element can be modified with ease and the subjected to analysis again, and depending on the result, a decision has to be taken to see if it needs more changes. The combination of the software with other types of software is a very useful tool because the programme of the finite element analysis allows the designer to import models from other CAD software to another FEA software. FEA also can be performed on increasingly affordable computer workstations and personal computers, and professional assistance is available [2]. The Finite Element Analysis (FEA) has been widely implemented by automotive companies and is now used by design engineers as a design tool during the product development process. Some of modern FEA packages consist of detailed components such as thermal, electromagnetic, and structural working environments. In a structural simulation, FEA helps tremendously in producing stiffness and strength visualizations and also in minimizing weight, materials, and costs [3]. FEA allows detailed visualization of where structures bend or twist, and indicates the distribution of stresses and displacements [3]. FEA software provides a wide range of simulation options for controlling the complexity of both modelling and analysis of a system [3]. In the same way, the accuracy level and associated computational time requirements can be managed all together to most engineering applications. FEA allows entire designs to be constructed, refined, and optimized before the design is manufactured [3]. This powerful design tool has significantly improved both the standard of engineering designs and the methodology of the design process in many industrial applications [3]. The introduction of FEA has significantly decreased the time to take products from concept to the production line. It is primarily through improved initial prototype designs using FEA that testing and development have been accelerated. In summary, benefits of FEA include increased accuracy, enhanced design and better insight into critical design parameters, virtual prototyping, fewer hardware prototypes, a faster and less expensive design cycle, increased productivity, and increased revenue [3]. The definition of stress is a force exerted when one body or body part presses on, pulls on, pushes against, or tends to compress or twist another body or body part [4]. A normal stress, s as defined as: Where dF is a differential normal force acting on a differential area dA. It can summarized that normal stress is s = P/A, where P is the resultant force on area A. 2.4.2 Stress Von Misses The stress von misses known as yield criterion suggests that the yielding of materials begins when the second deviatoric stress invariant reaches a critical value [5]. Simple equations relate the tensile yield stress, shear yield stress and compressive yield stress to a material property. Von Misses stress is determined from the stress state as: 2.4.3 Strain Strain is a measure of intensity of deformation, which is an importance variable in the development of formulas used in the design against deformation failures [6]. The change in structure shape can be described by the displacements of point on the structure. The strain, e as define as: Where, ?L represents the deformation of the line and Lo the original value. 2.4.4 Tensile properties Tensile properties illustrate the reaction from material to forces that applied in tension. A tensile test is a basic mechanical test where a carefully prepared specimen is loaded in a very controlled manner while measuring the applied load and the elongation of the specimen over some distance. Tensile tests are used to determine the modulus of elasticity, elastic limit, elongation, proportional limit, reduction area, tensile strength, yield point, yield strength and other tensile properties [7]. 2.4.5 Elastic-plastic behavior Elastic region is the region of the stress-strain curve in which the material returns to the undeformed state when applied forces are removed. The plastic region is the region in which the material deforms permanently. Yield point is the points separating the elastic from the plastic region [7]. The elastic behavior, plastic behavior and yield point can be described from stress  ¿Ã‚ ½ strain curve. The stress at yield point is called yield stress. The permanent strain when stresses are zero is called plastic strain. The stress strain curve describing an elastic  ¿Ã‚ ½ plastic behavior for a ductile material is show in Figure 2.2. 2.4.6 Young ¿Ã‚ ½s modulus Young ¿Ã‚ ½s modulus, E can be defined as the ratio of the uniaxial stress over the uniaxial strain in the range of stress in which Hooke ¿Ã‚ ½s Law holds [6]. It is used to measure the stiffness of an isotropic elastic material. It also called as the modulus of elasticity, elastic modulus or tensile modulus. It can be represents the gradient of the straight line in a stress-strain curve. Since the calculation of Youngs modulus, E is equal to tensile stress dividing by tensile strain: E = the Youngs modulus (modulus of elasticity) (N/m ¿Ã‚ ½). F = the force applied to the object, (N). A0 = the original cross-sectional area through the force applied, (m ¿Ã‚ ½). ?L = the amount by which the length of the object changes, (m). L0 = the original length of the object, (m). 2.5 Material Selection The alluminium alloy (6063 t5) was selected in chassis shell eco challenge. Because the characteristic of alluminium simply enough to produce high quality chassis. In addition, Aluminium is remarkable for the metals low density and for its ability to resist corrosion due to the phenomenon of passivation. Structural components made from aluminium and its alloys are vital to the automotive industry and are important in other areas of transportation and structural materials. The most useful compounds of aluminium, at least on a weight basis, are the oxides and sulphates.  ¿Ã‚ ½Aluminum may be the majority of plentiful steel within the Earth ¿Ã‚ ½s brown crust area, and also the 3rd the majority of plentiful component, following air as well as silicon. This is the reason 8% through pounds from the Earth ¿Ã‚ ½s strong area. Because of simple avaibality, higher power in order to pounds percentage, simple machinability, long lasting, ductile as well as malleability aluminum may be the most favored non-ferrous steel within 2005 had been 31.9 million tonnes ¿Ã‚ ½ [3]. 2.5.1 Advantages of Aluminium Aluminium is very light metal with a specific weight of 2.7 gm/cm3, about a third that of steel. For example the use of aluminium in vehicles reduces dead- weight and energy consumption while increasing load capacity. Its strength can be adapted to the application required by modifying the composition of its alloys. The application of light weight, strong and long lasting aluminium alloy is shown in figure 2.3 and 2.4 [4]. actually creates the protecting oxide layer and is highly corrosion resistant. It is especially helpful for application where protection and conservation are necessary needed. The application of highly corrosion resistance aluminium alloy is shown in figure 1.3 and 2.5. [4]. Combining of aluminium and alloy will increased the strength and stiffness properties of aluminium compared to conventional metals and alloys. From the figure below can conclude that material aluminium have middle range of stiffness. In aspect of safety, the stress of chassis by using alluminium alloy in the high level safety. Alluminium alloy also can reduce the cost to build a racing car chassis. So far Alluminium alloy is the best material for the construction of vehicle chassis for Shell Eco-Marathon competition because many of benefits those have in combination of aluminium and alloys. The properties of alluminium alloy shown as in table 2.6 below. 3.0 Preparation for Finite Element Analysis (chassis) Finite Element Analysis (FEA) is designed to help an engineer to understand the physical events that occur on the chassis or beam of the vehicle within designated objects. These events are related to the action and interaction of phenomena such as deformation, distorsion, crack and deflection due to the chassis. Because of the capabilities of the FEA software, FEA software now is very popular among the design engineer to help them in reduces cost because the actual simulation can be done before the design is modelled especially in automotive and aeronautic industry. In this project, the purpose of FEA simulation was to simulate the chassis car vehicle model similarity to the real situation. In other side, FEA is used to study strength of the chassis vehicle, to obtain the deformation of the beam section and can get the critical point due to load that applied to the chassis. The strain, reaction and element force also can get by doing the FEA method. The Finite Element Analysis was simulated by using software SOLIDWORKS 2010. In order to create the 3-D drawing for this simulation, SOLIDWORKS 2010 is used to draw the chassis due to complicated shaped and smooth surface. Then continue to make the simulation and analysis towards the completed drawing. To carry out the 3-D analysis, the work was divided into following procedure: 1. Define type of study. 2. Create material defination. 3. Assign material properties. 4. Assign fixed geometry. 5. Apply the external loads. 6. Create mesh for the subject. 7. Process Analysis result. The sequences of simulation process are shown 3.1 Create Model of UiTM Shell Eco-Sprint Chassis by Using CAD Software The selection of the 3-D drawing for  ¿Ã‚ ½Uitm Shell Eco-Sprint ¿Ã‚ ½ car software is due to the capabilities and user friendly factor of the software. In the development of the 3-D drawing for  ¿Ã‚ ½Uitm Shell Eco-sprint ¿Ã‚ ½ car is done by using SOLIDWORKS 2010 software. The figures 3.2, 3.3 and 3.4 below show the isometric view, top view and side view of the  ¿Ã‚ ½Shell Eco-Sprint ¿Ã‚ ½ chassis. 3.2 Analysis using SOLIDWORKS 2010 Software 3.2.1 Step in the Finite Element Analysis There are seven important steps in the finite Element Analysis: i. Define type of study. This research focused on static study. Whenever a load to be put on the entire body, the body deforms and also the impact associated with lots is actually sent through the entire body. The actual exterior lots stimulate inner causes as well as responses in order to make your body right into a condition associated with balance [9]. The main subjects that calculated in static analysis are stress, strain, displacement and reaction forces from the loads that applied on chassis. The static stady is showing in figure 3.5. ii. Create material defination. Before running the analysis, the material of chassis must be defined. This is very important step because there have much of material optional that can be choosing. Every material has different value of properties depend on analysis type. For example the static analysis stady is required a specific modulus elasticity value. Figure 3.6 below show how to create material defination iii. Assign material properties. The material that selected in this analysis is Aluminium Alloys 6063-T5. There have the specific value for elestic modulus, poissons ratio, density and yield strength that will be use for the analysis. The material properties show in figure 3.7 below. iv. Assign fixed geometry. After the material was selected, the chassis will be set up the fixed point. The fixed point usually located at tyre holder. There have four fixed points to be set up in this analysis. Two points located by the side of front chassis and balance located at the back chassis as in figure 3.8. v. Apply the external loads. The main objective of the analysis is to observe the deformation of chassis. The deformation of chassis is caused by the force that applied toward the chassis. So, there have three external loads that involve in this analysis. The loads are illustrated as in figure 3.9 and figure 3.10. Load Criteria Force(N) vi. Create mesh for the subject. Then, the program subdivides the model into small pieces of simple shapes connected at common points. This step called meshing process and the figure 3.11 below illustrate how to create mesh type. After all procedure has done, the analysis will run to get the result of analysis. The results can be visualized after the analysis was completed. Those results of analysis consist of displacement, stress, strain, and factor of safety. 3.3 Analysis using ABAQUS 6.10 Software ABAQUS software can be a user-friendly non-linear specific aspect program code as it could manage the particular modeling treatments directly into web template modules. Each and every element includes related tools to perform a certain process. This analysis focused to determine the maximum load and deflection of the beam section due to the load applied. There have 8 modules that must be following in finite element analysis by using Abaqus software: i. Parts module ii. Property module iii. Assembly module iv. Step module v. Interaction Module vi. Load module vii. Mesh module viii. Load module 3.3.1 Parts module For the simulation analysis process, the model of beam will be simulated by using ABAQUS software. In order to run the simulation, the model will be imported into Geometry for model preparation. The 3-D model of tube hollow is constructing by using Solidwork2010 and converts to IGES file to be import into Abaqus 6.10. The figure 3.12 below show the part that imported will be in shell. The scale of import part will multiply it length by 0.001 because all dimensions in Abaqus are using in meter. The other parts that will involve in this analysis are two support span and the hammer that will contribute as force movement on the beam. Those parts were defined as discrete rigid geometry in 3-D modeling space in Abaqus workbench. The material that has chosen on this chassis is aluminium alloy 6063 (T5). The material properties of aluminium alloy for general or mechanical (plastic and elastic) were filled up in this step as in figure 3.13 below. Those properties that must be filled up are: I. Density II. Young ¿Ã‚ ½s modulus III. Poisson ¿Ã‚ ½s ratio IV. Yield stress V. Plastic stress be change to other value as in figure 3.14 below. Then the assign section will apply into the beam to locate the material properties and the thickness value. In this module, the references point that locates at tools menu must be created to all parts except the beam. Figure 3.13: Material manager step. For the section manager step, the beam parts will set as homogeneous type. This is very important step where the value of shell thickness will ditermine and can 3.2.3 Assembly module All parts that created before will assemble together in this module. The instance parts will create and the position of parts will adjust using coordinates and translation command. There must have surface contact between parts and beam as shown in figure 3.15 below. 3.2.4 Step module This analysis focused on dynamic and explicit procedure. The time period will set at 0.03s as in figure 3.16 below. The incrementation and mass scalling will be in default setting. There have history output request to be create for this analysis. First output will set up for the whole model and the output variable selection is energy as in figure 3.17 Then, the history output request for hammer only was set as second output. The rotations scope as in figure 3.18 below. The translational will define hammer movement by make x, y and z axis as references. output variables for the support part. Those outputs are reaction force and moment as in figure 3.19 below. The direction of the reaction will refer in x, y and z axis. 3.2.5 Interaction module General contact (explicit) was selected to analysis the contact behavior of the beam as in figure 3.20. Then the contact property will create as a friction. The tangentional behavior and friction formulation with type penalty was selected to characterize the contacts between the beams and hammer during analysis. The friction coefficient was set at 0.25 as in figure 3.21 to avoid sliding of the structure. 3.2.6 Load module The boundry condition is using to create a movement for every part. For the hammer, the displacement will set by 0.07m only in y-direction. The negative sign show the movement will in opposite of axis direction depend on the assembly model. The smooth step was selected for amplitude of movement as in figure 3.22. Besides, there have no movement for two support and was in fixed condition. So, the point for displacement and rotation remain zero for every direction and angle. 3.2.7 Mesh module Meshing step is the program that subdivides the model into small pieces of simple shapes connected at common points. The sizes of mesh are depending on seed size. For this analysis, the seed size of beam was set to 0.005m. Next, the element type is explicit and the structure technique was selected as technique of mesh control. Then, the step will go trough by select the instance region to be meshing as in figure 3.23. After procedure in Geometry and Meshing was complete, the model now ready to simulate in Setup software in order to solve the appropriate problem and visualization the result. The step involves in Setup software is to define the properties, the physical condition, and the visualization scene. 3.4 Experimentals Preparation This subtopic will introduce about the procedure preparation for tensile test and flexural test experiment. These two experiments are related with the analysis that have done by using CAD software. And the result of the experiment is used to make a comparison between the simulation results in Finite Element Analysis. The tensile test is probably the simplest and most widely used test to characterize the mechanical properties of a material. The setup for the test as described in this tutorial and as performed in the laboratory is based upon standards established by the American Society for Testing and Material (ASTM). The main purpose of tensile test experiment is to get stress and strain of material. From there, the graph of stress against strain will be constructing and can obtain the stress-strain curve. The young ¿Ã‚ ½s modulus directly defined by calculating the slope of the stress-strain curve. Than the experimental value of the young ¿Ã‚ ½s modulus can be compare to the analysis value that use in finite element analysis. 3.4.1 Material testing (Tensile Test) For the analysis beam, there will have a comparison between results of physical testing (tensile test) and FEA modelling result of the beam chassis. These steps are made in order to reduce any possible error due to analysis that have constructed. From the Abaqus software there has material input to define young ¿Ã‚ ½s Modulus. To prove the values of theses material properties as provided by the manufactures would hopefully reduce the error between modelled result and tested result for the chassis performance. So the young ¿Ã‚ ½s Modulus of alluminium alloy (6063 T5) can be calculated directly by doing tensile test experiment. The properties that measured from this experiment are ultimate tensile strength, maximum elongation and reduction in area. Beside that, those properties also can calculate possion ¿Ã‚ ½s ratio and yield strength of the materials. The figure 3.24 below show the schematic diagram of tensile test. Sample preparation There have 5 samples that will contribute with tensile test experiment. The entire samples have same dimension and thickness. Because the only way to obtain the percise value is get the average result of the samples. All of the samples that will run trough this experiment are already in dog bone profile as shown in figure 3.25. Method of Tensile Test Experiment. Firstly, the speciemens file is created and all the parameters were set-up before start the experiment. The speed that set in this tensile test experiment is 5mm/min. So the speciemens start to install in lower grip and leave upper grip open. Then close the upper grip until the speciemens perfectly grip with the upper and lower clamps as in figure 3.26. Then the experiment can be started by press  ¿Ã‚ ½start ¿Ã‚ ½ button until the test proceed through elastic range until yielding is clearly present on the scope. The main ojective of flexural testing is to determine parameters such as bend strength, yield strength in bending and elastic modulus. Regarding with the project, the flexural experiment is use to investigate response of metal when subjected to bending. Bending as well as flexure measurement can be widespread throughout along with brittle resources as their multifunction behaviors are generally linear including concretes, stones, woodlands, pockets, cups along with ceramics. Other designs involving brittle resources including powdered ingredients metallurgy highly processed mining harvests along with resources tend to be screened underneath a new transverse flexure. Bend over examination can be for that reason well suited for assessing energy involving brittle resources wherever model involving tensile examination response to a similar product can be tough on account of smashing involving specimens all-around specimen gripping. Sample prep

Christopher Marlowe :: essays research papers

Christopher Marlowe Many major and influential authors emerged during the Renaissance. Among these talented individuals was Christopher Marlowe. Marlowe and his fellow writers of the late sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries, impacted the course of writing, which preceded their life. Their works continue to be read and studied by numerous people, to this day. Christopher Marlowe was a dominant English poet and playwright, who perhaps was William Shakespeare’s most important predecessor in England (Britannica 917). Of all writers in the Elizabethan era, he was perhaps the most dashing, tempestuous, and appealing (Microsoft Encarta). Although Marlowe was considered the most important dramatist, prior to Shakespeare, his entire career as a playwright lasted only six years.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Marlowe was born on February 6th, 1564 in Canterbury, England. His father, John Marlowe, was a shoemaker and tanner. His mother, Catherine Author, was the daughter of a clergyman. Marlowe attended Kings School in Canterbury, England. At Kings School, he received a very regimented education, which was considered one of the best available during that time. The school day began and ended with a prayer at six am and five p.m. respectively. In addition to daily instruction in religion and music, they also sang the morning mass in the Cathedral. The boys were allowed to speak solely in Latin, even while at play. He was granted a scholarship, established by Matthew Perry, to attend Corpus Christi College in Cambridge. (Gale Research) After receiving his BA in 1584, he became known as “Dominus'; Marlowe(. At age twenty-one, his motto was “That which nourishes me, destroys me'; (Kunitz 823). This statement foretold and shaped his writing style. From thereafter, many absences from the university were recorded. In 1587, he was allowed to obtain his Masters, only after the Privy Council sent a letter to the university making it very clear that his service to the government had frequently taken him abroad. He left Cambridge after six and a half years of study with the intention of taking holy orders and entering the Anglican Church, as ordained by his scholarship. However, instead he entered the government service, as an agent. In edition, Marlowe became a playwright for the London theatres. As an occasional actor in 1589, Marlowe maintained his role as a regular dramatist for the Lord Admirals Company. He also wrote for The Earl of Nottinghams Companies. Marlowe was often in trouble with the law, and little is known about his life, aside from his writings.

Monday, August 19, 2019

The 19th Century Prose of Nathaniel Hawthorne :: Biography Biographies Essays

Nathaniel Hawthorne's 19th Century Prose      Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Nathaniel Hawthorne, a master of American fiction, often utilizes dreams within the annals of his writings to penetrate, explore and express his perceptions of   the complex moral and spiritual conflicts that plague mankind.   His clever, yet crucial purpose for using dreams is to represent, through symbolism, the human divergence conflict manifested in the souls of man during the firm Christian precepts of the Era in which he lived.   As a visionary in an extremely conservative Puritanical society, he carefully and successfully manages to depict humanity's propensity for sin and secrecy, and any resulting punishment or atonement by weaving dreams into his tales.   The dreams he refers to in many of his writings are heavily symbolic due to his Christian foundation, and they imply that he views most dreams as a pigmentation of reality.   Hawthorne's ability to express and subsequently bring to fruition the true state of man's sinful nature by parallelling dreams with reality represents not only his religious beliefs but also his true mastery of observation regarding the human soul.      Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   An examination of Hawthorne's own narrative in his short story, The Birthmark, published in 1850 during the latter part of the period of Puritanism expands his observations of mankind with keen insight.         Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Truth often finds its way to the mind close-muffled   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   in robes of sleep, and then speaks with uncompromising   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   directness of matters in regard to which we practice   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   an unconscious self-deception, during our waking   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   moments.  Ã‚   (par.15)    The prophetic statement was made by Hawthorne to open the reader's mind and perhaps inject an introspective glimpse of   his perspective that dreams do indeed contain precursors or warnings of future conscious realities.   He also contends that people often purposely disregard the contents of their dreams and do not face the realities that they are confronted with while in unconscious moments of slumber.  Ã‚   Hawthorne's writings are marked by intrinsic depth and a sincere desire to crawl inside of the characters he has created.   He accomplishes this objective by allowing them to dream. He makes his presence known by frequently commenting openly throughout his prose and interject a narrative of his assertions.  Ã‚   Hawthorne historically has his characters confront reality following a dream, or he reveals that

Sunday, August 18, 2019

Al-Anon Observation Paper -- Twelve-Step Meeting Observation Paper

Alcoholism is as prevalent in my family, as blood is in our veins. When previously asked to observe 12-step groups, I ritualistically flocked to Alcoholics Anonymous, without consideration of the possibility that other groups had any potential to make an impact on me. I always pride myself in my ability to identify as an individual that is not ensnared in alcoholism, but unfortunately am an individual that was highly tormented by alcoholism. Through observation of the group and how it processed, as well as identifying how I felt as a new attendee, I was able to understand why self-help, support groups are so vital for individuals in recovery. I finally realized, I too am in recovery. I attended Al-Anon meetings on Sundays at St. Matthew Episcopal Church. The meetings began at 11:45am, and were held until 1:00pm, which was contingent on the progress of each small group. I was in attendance beginning January 19th, with attendance on January 26th, and February 2nd. The groups first met in one room together, and then broke into smaller groups to process. The initial meeting room is a nursery room in the church. It had a lot of natural lighting from the windows, and was decorated in children’s religious artwork. The room was far too small for all of the attendees. There was an average of thirty-five attendees at each meeting. Many times people who came late had to stand outside the doorway and listen in, because the room was literally overflowing with people. There were never enough chairs, which forced some individuals to stand, until the large group, broke into small groups. The group itself was entirely made up of middle age, Caucasians. There was an average of about thirty-five attendees each week. The average age of the gr... ... Gifford, S. (2011). Differences Between Outpatient and Inpatient Treatment Programs. Psych Central. Retrieved from Galanter, M., M.D. (2008). Spirituality, Evidence-Based Medicine, and Alcoholics Anonymous. PsychiatryOnline. Retrieved from Peele, S., PhD. (2004, August). Is AA's loss psychology's gain? American Psychological Association. Vol. 35 NO. 7 pp. 86 Retrieved from McGovern, M. P., PhD, & Carroll, K. M., PhD. (2003). Evidence- base Practices for Substance Use Disorders. Psychiatric Clinics of North America. Retrieved from

Saturday, August 17, 2019

The Mind & Brain

The Mind & Brain: Are There Differences? Darreia Johnson PHI208-Ethics and Moral Reasoning Professor: Kurt Mosser February 27, 2013 The Mind & Brain: Are There Differences? This is a fascinating subject, â€Å"the mind and the brain† because these are the kind of questions philosophers work so hard to answer. Many people believe the mind and brain are the same. Mind and Brain are two terms that are understood to mean the same when used in the colloquial sense. There is certainly some difference between the two in their making.Brain is made of physical matter while mind is not made of physical matter. To be more elaborate brain is made up of cells, blood vessels and nerves to name a few. Mind is nothing but the thought that resides in the brain. Apart from thoughts, mind gives room for emotions, memories and dreams as well. I will address certain perspectives from different academic sources as well as my own concerning the mind and brain and how they work. In terms of a compute r, we can look at the brain as the hardware and the mind as the software, but it is much more complicated than that. Mind† refers to the part of you that is capable of thought. â€Å"Brain† can be a synonym for mind, and it can also refer to the physical organ within your skull. That is, the â€Å"brain† is a physical organ while â€Å"mind† is a more philosophical concept. People sometimes make a careful distinction between the two words when discussing the philosophical concept. Like, when people are debating whether there is such a thing as an immortal soul, they will say things like, â€Å"Can the mind exist without the brain? † In most day-to-day contexts, the two words are pretty much synonymous.The brain, part of the central nervous system situated within the skull. It includes two cerebral hemispheres, parallel masses of deeply furrowed tissue as well as the brainstem and cerebellum. Its functions include muscle control and coordination, sen sory reception and integration, speech production, memory storage, and the elaboration of thought and emotion. According to Susan Greenfield in an article I read, she has a different approach. She says: â€Å"There is a familiar dichotomy between mind and brain, hereas the concepts of ‘mind’ and ‘consciousness’ often are conflated: I wish to argue here that both suppositions are wrong. † We want to first explore the aspects of the mind and brain. â€Å"Where ‘brain’ obviously needs no definition, ‘mind’ presents more of a trip-wire. Normally the term is used to refer to abstract airy-fairy events that float free of the biological squalor of neuronal circuitry and chemicals. But more than rather vague mental activity, ‘mind’ is used also for personal aspects of brain function, as in ‘I don't mind’, ‘broaden the mind’, ‘make your mind up’, etc.I would venture therefore that perhaps ‘ mind’ is very close to what we might refer to as ‘ personality’, but the big difference is that personality is in the eye of a third-person beholder, whereas ‘mind’ is a first-person perspective, i. e. it is what it feels like to be you rather than what other people judge you to be. † (Greenfield, 2002) The brain, Susan suggest, is a gross aspect and can vary from one individual to another, they offer n clue as to who is kind, witty, cruel and good at cooking. Let us consider how the brain is organized. Within each macro brain region there is no single isolated complete function.We know, for example, that vision is divided up into color, motion and form processing and, in turn, the function of vision can preoccupy over 30 brain regions. Similarly, any one brain region, like the prefrontal cortex, can participate in more than one function. So brain regions are bit players on the brain stage, and not autonomous units. Within each area we know that there is complex brain circuitry, finally boiling down to the synapse, across which we find all the biochemical baggage needed to operate a system of chemical transmission: in turn, this baggage of enzymes, receptors and uptake mechanisms is the result of gene expression.Moreover, we know that in our whole body there are merely 30 000 or thereabouts genes, so that even if every single gene in the body was devoted to a synapse, one would still be out by 1010 (assuming approximately 1015 connections in the brain). So, we can no more attribute autonomous functions to the most basic level of brain function, genes, than we can to the most macro, the brain regions. In both cases there is very little room for man oeuvre and therefore it is hard to see how personalization of the brain, the mind, might develop. Greenfield, 2002) Speaking of genes, one would agree that genes play important roles in our thought process. In The Birth of the Mind: How a Tiny Number of Genes Cre ates the Complexities of Human Thought, Gary Marcus takes as his goal â€Å"not to try to prove that genes make a difference—a matter that is no longer in serious doubt—but to describe how they work and to explain, for the first time, what that means for the mind† (pp. 4–5; italics in original).He specifically disparages the popular press (and the scientists who so inform it) for announcing the discovery of a gene for this or that just as he dismisses the question â€Å"whether nurture or nature is more important† (p. 7). He understands the only meaningful answer involves their â€Å"interaction,† an understanding of which leads to the more refined and productive question, â€Å"How do genes work together with the environment to build a human mind? † (p. 8). Nothing less is at stake than the tossing out of the gene as a permanent template.Marcus's chief point, made after disposing of both the dangerously fallacious â€Å"single geneà ¢â‚¬  theory and the notion that genetic structure is â€Å"unmalleable† and therefore that behavior is foretold, is that â€Å"genes do for the brain the same things as they do for the rest of the body: They guide the fates of cells by guiding the production of proteins within those cells† (p. 86). The alert reader, now accepting the idea of the flexibility and plasticity of the genes, will want to know precisely how the external environment shapes the genes.The answer, Marcus writes, is that every genetic process is triggered by some sort of signal. From the perspective of a given cell, it doesn't matter where that signal comes from. The signal that launches the adjust-your-synapse cascade, for example, may come from within, or it may come from without. The same genes that are used to adjust synapses based on internal instruction can be reused by external instruction. Candland, 2004) It goes on to say how genes shape our behavior, I also agree with Candland’s perspective on the issue. I think that although the mind and brain often are seen as one, that they are two different entities within the same host. I was reading an article earlier that said: we can study the brain but not the mind. I disagree with that article because that is what makes it so complex, we can hold the brain in our hands but not the mind. I think the mind is measured on different levels but studied as well.Psychiatrist, philosophers, and the field of medicine, just to mention a few, study the mind every day. They are able to draw the line between sane and insane, according to our text; Philosophy, A Conscious Decision, talks about the extreme skeptic as Descartes seems to have constructed a skepticism so powerful that it calls into question anything we have ever been certain of: that we have bodies, that there are other people around us, that we're awake when we think we are, and even that 2 + 2 = 4.Most important, for epistemology, is that Descartes transforms the discussion into one of doubt about what we call the external world: the world of objects that are outside of our mind, including the ordinary objects, such as tables and chairs, about which we make our most confident knowledge claims. (Mosser, 2010) This is an example how powerful and complex the mind is. Another way of learning how our minds work is to understand the brain systems that would produce mental representations with the properties just described.For this purpose, he introduces the principle of learning by prediction and links it to Bayesian decision theory. He argues that many of the cognitive phenomena considered can be explained if it is assumed that the brain operates as an ideal Bayesian observer. This conceptualization directly builds on the notion that perception and action are proactive processes and involve the generation of mental models. The models generated by the brains are continuously tested against reality and adapted using sensory signals and prediction errors, which are computed based on probabilistic knowledge derived from past experiences.When facing a tall animate object in a streetcar, for example, probabilistic information about the likelihood of encountering a human being versus a gorilla plays a critical role in the perceptual processes that allow for object recognition. In motor control, probabilistic knowledge (e. g. , a filled backpack typically weighs x) is combined with sensory feedback to support the optimal selection and online correction of movement when pursuing an intention (e. g. , to pick up the backpack). (Kohler, 2008)In contrast to the above theory, it is said modern belief that the mind is the same thing as the brain, and therefore consists of genetic and chemical processes. Contrary to this notion is the more common sense view that our minds are made up of experiences in the world and with others, and while the brain may be the material home of the mind, it is not the mind itself. Professor Kando begins wit h a refutation of materialistic reductionism and positivism, and then builds on the work of William James, George Herbert Mead, and Joel Charon to make the case that the mind is a product of learning and not the same thing as the brain. Kando, 2008) The mind and brain are also associated with personality disorders. In this context the use of the words â€Å"mind† and â€Å"brain† in psychiatry is often associated with a set of polarities. Concepts such as environment, psychosocial, and psychotherapy are linked with â€Å"mind,† while genes, biology, and medication are often associated with â€Å"brain. † The author examines these dichotomies as they apply to personality disorders. Method: Research on antisocial and borderline personality disorders that is relevant to these dichotomies is evaluated.The implications of the findings for the understanding of pathogenesis and treatment are reconsidered. Results: In the clinical setting, it is problematic to lu mp together terms such as â€Å"genes,† â€Å"brain,† and â€Å"biological† as though they are separate and distinct from terms such as â€Å"environment,† â€Å"mind,† and â€Å"psychosocial. † These dichotomies are problematic, because genes and environment are inextricably intertwined in the pathogenesis of personality disorders, psychosocial experiences may result in permanent changes in the brain, and psychotherapy may have its effect by altering brain structure and function.The â€Å"theory of mind† is a useful construct for bridging â€Å"mind† and â€Å"brain† in the treatment of personality disorders. Conclusions: Severe personality disorders are best understood and treated without â€Å"either-or† dichotomies of brain and mind. Each domain has a different language, however, and the language of the mind is necessary to help the patient develop a theory of mind. (Gabbard, 2005) In conclusion, it could be n ecessary to associate the mind with the brain, but this is a complex issue because without the brain the mind cannot exist.However the mind and brain are very different. Theo Clark says, Scientific knowledge suggests that the world is inanimate, purposeless, made up of material things which operate on a cause and effect basis; yet the mental world seems to involve consciousness, planning, desire etc. It would seem paradoxical that one world is the product of another. Yet this is the conclusion we are faced with if we are to make any sense of the evidence at hand and resolve one of the major questions of all time. Do the electronic processes of the brain ‘create' or ‘give rise to' the mind; or is it that the electronic processes Are the mind? † The ratiocination of this question is essentially philosophical, but by necessity, it is grounded in the world of empirical science. (Clark, 2008) There are two vantages from which one can study the mind. The first-person acc ount (â€Å"I seered†) and the third-person (â€Å"He says he sees red when certain pathways in his brain encounter a wavelength of six hundred nanometers†).This can be broadly labeled as ‘Introspectionism' and ‘Behaviourism' respectively. As one cannot directly see into another's head, methodological problems arise using Introspectionist techniques, a result of which can be seen in the foibles of much introspective psychology (such as Freudianism). Behaviourism holds that any mental events are outside the realm of empirical science; ergo, it is now the brain which is the focus, as opposed to the mind. (Clark, 2008) References Candland, D. K. (2004). ‘What Is Mind? No Matter. What Is Matter? Never Mind. Mind Is Matter: Psychology Better Mind. Psyccritiques, 49(Suppl 2), doi:10. 1037/040007 Clark, T. (2008) â€Å"Is there and Difference between the Mind and the Brain? Research, Science http://www. scribd. com/doc/2451851/Is-There-a-Difference-Between- the-Mind-and-Brain. Gabbard, G. O. (2005). Mind, brain, and personality disorders. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 162(4), 648-55. Retrieved from http://search. proquest. com/docview/220501257? accountid=32521 Greenfield, S. (2002). Mind, Brain and Consciousness. The British Journal of Psychiatry,

Friday, August 16, 2019

Review and Evaluate Strategies in Health and Social Care Environments to Overcome Barriers to Effective Communication and Interpersonal Interactions

There are a lot of useful strategies within a health and social care environment for example a hearing aid would be very useful as a deaf person would be able to hear people talking to them as it picks up and increases the volume of an individual’s voice so the deaf person would hear them clearly but also it has disadvantages as if the hearing aid battery was not working it would be no use to them as they would not hear anything or only hear tiny bits of conversations, also hearing aids amplify background noise and if the background noise was very loud it could put the person in a great deal of pain as everything is 10 times louder to them.Mobile phones have a lot of advantages such as the service user can get in touch with medical professionals if they need to and get advice quickly without them having to travel to the doctors but also it is a disadvantage as not a lot of service users would know how to use mobile phones as they are advanced. Also if a service user was trying to use a mobile phone but failing to it could also make them stressed this could lead to other health problems on top of the ones that they may already have.Hearing loops are a advantage in health and social care as it helps deaf people hear sounds more clearly and also cuts out any background noise so the deaf person could hear what anyone is saying and understand it very clearly, the disadvantages of having a hearing loop is that they can pick up interference from other magnetic fields this may confuse the person who is wearing the hearing loop and also could put them in some discomfort as they are picking up more sounds than they should. In some situations a loop may not be secure, other hearing aid wearers can listen in this could make the deaf person feel as if everyone is listening to what he is saying or listening to and could make the deaf person feel very uncomfortable.Interpreters are a great advantage in health and social care as they can communicate a conversation, whet her it be signed or spoken to someone in a different language that they may understand. A disadvantage of an interpreter may be that they don’t only have to interpret the words and signs but also have to find a way of expressing a meaning if this is not done correctly then the service user may not understand and misunderstand what they are being told and make it into something much worse than they are  actually being told.A translator is really useful in health and social care as they change recorded information such as a written word into another language this would be good for someone who is deaf that cannot hear a interpreter so the translator would write it down for them instead, the disadvantage of a translator is that they also have to convey the meaning as well as the word so if the translator is unsure of the meaning it could then confuse the service user and also because they have to write it down if their hand writing is not clear enough the service user may mista ken it for another word.A signer is a good way of helping the deaf community in health and social care as a signer is a person who uses a signed language to communicate with deaf people this is very useful as the service provide e.g. doctor is not likely to have learned signed language but if a signer came in he could communicate with the deaf individual through the signer it is also a lot easier than lip reading as lip reading may not always be understood. The disadvantages of a signer would be that the signer would have to make every hand movement as clear as possible so that the service user understand 100% what they are being told also the signer would have to use a language appropriate to the service user and not use any words they may not understand such a jargon and slang.

Thursday, August 15, 2019

Imagine you are Candy lying in bed, unable to sleep at the end of the day Essay

Lying on my bunk bed in my barn I stared at the wooden ceiling finished by brown boards joint together. The brown boards were filled with deep cracks, weathered and old, reminding me of my aged, ailing, sheepdog who was infested with rheumatism. As I thought of him, I unconsciously plunged into a deep depression and waves of emotions swept over me. My eyes blurred with tears as I thought of my old dog. Again and again, I tried to fall asleep, tossing and turning on the bed, but the task seemed unattainable. I leaned up and turned my face to the window, staring out at the pale crescent moon which shone like a silvery claw as well as the blanket of stars that stretched to infinity, and let an audible sigh. Today was a very disheartening day for me. I have never felt as despondent and fatigue before. Not only was my heart filled with sorrow, it was filled with pangs of guilt. I had allowed Carlson to shoot my own dog Bingo, which I had own since he was a puppy. Bingo was innocent, and had done nothing wrong. Although he was diseased with rheumatism, did that give Carlson the right to kill Bingo? Was it right to do that? Bingo was not just a dog to me; he was like a friend, a best friend. We spent many cherished and unforgettable moments together, including herding sheep together. He was my long life companion, and without him, life would never be as complete as it used to be. Even though Bingo was now toothless, foul smelling, brittle with age and would never run as fast as my herd sheep like he did when he was younger, my love for him remained unchanged. I valued all of the elation and devotion that my once splendid dog had brought to me in my life. Did I make the right choice? I could not comprehend why nobody understood me. Did Slim and Carlson really think that another dog could substitute Bingo? Did they not have any feelings for Bingo? Bingo was one of a kind, and nothing would be able to supplant him. Now that Bingo was gone, life feels so empty and insecure. Being a faithful dog Bingo was, he used to follow me everywhere. Bingo was there during my ups and downs. Even though he was incapable of speaking, it was as if his eyes were able to communicate every single thought of his. The sound of the gunshot played repeatedly in my mind. I knew that my companion did have limited time left in his life, and that he would pass away eventually even if it were not for the advance killing of Bingo. However, tears started rolling down my cheeks as I pondered over whether the shot had caused any pain for Bingo. Though Carlson promised that the shot would not hurt Bingo in anyway, I could not restrain myself from thinking about it. I would rather have taken care of Bingo than cause any pain for him, even if it might be a burden. Then again, I thought through about the fact that it might have been better that Bingo died, because it might be better to terminate his life since he was in so much pain. I started regretting about letting Carlson kill Bingo, instead of killing the dog himself. I realized the responsibility to kill my own dog. â€Å"I’m sorry. I love you, and I would never forget you† I whispered. Calming myself down, I started envisaging what he had discussed with George and Lennie, the two new workers, about our dream house, visualizing and fascinating at the inspiration of how our house would be like after we manage to buy it and started to feel much more relieved. Ripples of excitement burst through me as I thought of how our future house would be like, and I became even more determined to chip in $350 to buy the house. My final decision was made; I would chip in to buy the house. Thinking of Lennie, I recalled being so astonished that he and Curly gotten into such a big fight. I had never seen Curly that infuriated before. Lennie had stood rooted to the ground helplessly not knowing what to do, receiving all the punches by Curly, staring and requesting George for help. He could not make the decision for himself and only after George told him to fight back did I truly realize how strong Lennie was. I had never imagined him being capable of grabbing onto one’s hand especially till there would be a need for him to be sent to see the doctor. I started wondering how Lennie was feeling, and hoped that he was not regretting it too much. Lennie most probably did not mean to do that deliberately. Nonetheless, I prayed that Curly was healthy and that nothing serious had come over him.

Ineffectiveness of Therapeutic Communities in Prisons Essay

Prisons release 650,000 offenders to the public annually and 70% of those exoffenders will commit new offenses within three years (Fields, 2005, p. A4). According to the JFA Institute (2007), â€Å"two-thirds of the 650,000 prison admissions are people who have failed probation or parole—approximately half of these people have been sent to prison for technical violations† (p. 1). As prison crowding occurs, prison officials are challenged to keep inmates busy by assigning them to productive tasks and incorporate therapeutic programs (Center for Justice & Reconciliation, 2007). If criminal justice professionals fail to keep up with programming expectations, program shortages may influence inmate idleness resulting in disruptions, prison violations, and mental-health issues related to stress and depression (Fields). During 2003 and 2004, approximately 900 criminals entered the nation’s jails and prisons each week based on a report issued in April 2006 by the U. S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs (p. 1). Jails and prisons in the U. S. house more people with mental illnesses than many of the inpatient psychiatric facilities, and virtually all correctional facilities experience the impact of this population that is increasing at an unprecedented rate (McCuan, Prini, & Wasarhaley, 2007). During 2006, 41% of inmate assailants were listed under the mental health caseload (Collins, 2006). In 2006, the U. S. Department of Justice released statistics revealing that 23% of state prisoners reported symptoms of major depression. An estimated 61% of state prisoners and 44% of jail inmates who had a mental health problem also had a history of past violent behavior. In a 1999 report (Dawn, 2007), the National Alliance for the Mentally Ill reported that there are three times as many seriously mentally ill individuals in prison and jails than there are being treated in hospitals. Equally disturbing is that the criminal justice system will have some type of experience with 25 to 40% of the mentally ill in the U. S. population. Inmates with mental illness present additional expenditure problems for prison systems already overburdened by population demands. The influx has challenged criminal justice professionals to extend their budgets to cover the costs of appropriate programming for every offender in an effort to minimize potential inmate unrest, a situation that leads to assaults and other infractions associated with idleness (Wilkinson, 1998). In 2007, the Ohio Department of Rehabilitation and Correction (DRC) reached a population milestone with a count of 50,000 offenders. As the inmate population rises in Ohio prisons, the possibility of inmate assaults may also go up â€Å"because overcrowding exacerbates the chronic pains of imprisonment† (Haney, 2006, p. 2). One way to manage a potential increase in assaults is to keep offenders engaged in some type of community activity and participating in therapeutic programs. Some officials reported that therapeutic programs and community service theoretically should be one of the most effective ways to engage an inmate’s time and energy and keep infractions at a manageable level. DRC views the involvement of inmates in community service and therapy as vital to their release. Ohio prison Director Terry Collins stated that ex-offenders who served as program participants during their incarceration help close the gap between themselves and their communities. As a result, these inmates are better prepared to function as lawabiding citizens â€Å"†¦because they have stayed in touch with the community and have given something of value back† (Collins, 2007, p. 1). â€Å"Very crowded prison systems are difficult to manage† (Wilkinson, 1998, p. 76). As prison crowding occurs, prison officials are challenged to keep inmates busy by assigning them to productive tasks. â€Å"Good prison management is engaging prisoners in meaningful activities such as educational programs and work assignments† (Wilkinson, p. 76). â€Å"The most important single factor (among many) that helps to explain the current crisis in American corrections—the lack of effective programming and treatment† (Haney, 2007, p. 76). Although prison jobs such as mopping floors, kitchen duty, and making prison garments occupy inmates’ time, more meaningful community service as a restorative justice measure may be an effective way to address the challenge of prison crowding (Center for Justice & Reconciliation, 2007). â€Å"The meaningful aspect is critical because it may help to instill responsibility and a changed attitude about criminal activity† (Wilkinson, p. 76). Prisons in the United States are facing the challenges of crowding including inmate idleness as it relates to programming expectations. Lack of programming in prison is a serious safety and security threat to the staff, the public, and the offenders. As inmate populations increase, once stable prison systems can become volatile environments and endanger prison staff and the systems they are charged with protecting (Gaes, 1994). When criminal justice professionals fail to keep up with programming expectations, program shortages may influence inmate idleness. Inmate idleness can lead to disruptions, prison violations, gang-related activities, and mental-health issues related to stress and depression (Wilkinson, p. 76). Another issue confronting the criminal justice system is the increasing number ofyouth being sentenced to adult prisons (Fields, 2005). Every state within the U. S. has at least one statutory component that addresses the procedure of processing juveniles as adults in criminal court (Wilkinson, 1998). Prison officials also have other challenges. One challenge officials face includes accommodating the needs of state prisoners with symptoms of mania (43%) and major depression (23%) according to the U. S. Department of Justice (2006, p. 1). A major problem is that inmates with mental health problems are unable to defend their situation so they remain in prison. Although prison officials face the issue of crowding, they are also seeking ways for inmates to become engaged in some type of activity that will keep them busy for the majority of their waking hours. When offenders engage in some type of prison program or activity that helps with their transition from prison to society successful reintegration is possible. The theoretical framework of community service in the prison setting is the restorative justice model (Zehr, 2002). The restorative justice model advocates that offenders must demonstrate a desire or a goodwill gesture to pay back the public for the misdeed they committed in order to reconnect to their community. Restorative justice is a philosophical framework for responding to crime that focuses on the injury resulting from crime and the actions needed to mend this harm. It focuses on crime as an act against another individual or the community rather than the state. It is a future-focused model that emphasizes problem solving instead of â€Å"just deserts. † (Carey, 1996, pp. 152-153) Although several justice models exist, the restorative justice model combines the best features of the traditional, liberal, and conservative theories. â€Å"Restorative justice has brought an awareness of the limits and negative by-products of punishment. Beyond that, however, it has argued that punishment is not real accountability† (Zehr, 2002, p. 16). By participating as community service volunteers, inmates choose to serve the community. The inmates’ actions demonstrate a desire to give back and a desire to assume responsibility for their actions. Community service programs have a restorative justice component that considers an offender’s successful transition from incarceration to community integration (U. S. Department of Justice, 2006). When considering the large number of offenders in jails and prisons nationally, the problem demands the public’s immediate attention (U. S. Department of Justice, 2006). Providing offenders with productive activities through programs like community service sends a message to the public that its safety and security is vital. It is also important to assist inmates in their transition back into the community by engaging them in an activity that keeps them connected to a society that has been offended by crime. Wilkinson (1998) reported that a significant percent of exoffenders that participated in community service while in prison did not recidivate compared to those offenders that did not participate (p. 91). Although community service may have a positive impact on an inmate’s community re-entry, the type of community service program inmates do during their incarceration may also improve their quality of prison life. Barak, Savorai, Mavashev, and Beni (2001) reported that dogs are becoming a valued therapeutic tool among health-care providers in clinical and non-traditional settings because of the calming affect dogs have on the physical and mental conditions of patients. Community service programs serve a useful role in managing inmate behavior and controlling the frequency and severity of inmate infractions within adult prisons. However, as prison crowding occurs, prison officials struggle to keep inmates busy by assigning them to productive tasks. Inmate idleness is something that most states are confronted with and while prison jobs such as mopping floors, kitchen duty, and making prison garments keep inmates occupied, these jobs are not enough to satisfy programming requirements to address the needs of rising populations. As inmate populations increase, stable prison systems could become volatile environments endangering prison staff as well as the inmates the systems are charged with protecting. When there are a limited number of prison jobs to address the population challenges, offenders find inappropriate ways to address their own idleness. The choices offenders make may lead to fights, staff assaults, riots, and other forms of aggression. References Barak, Y. , Savorai, O. , Mavashev, S. , & Beni, A (2001). Animal assisted therapy for elderly schizophrenic patients: A one year controlled trial. American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 9(4), 439-432. Fields, G. (2005, January). Congress prepares to tackle prisoner recidivism: Lawmakers plan for bipartisan measures after report offers advice for overhaul. Wall Street Journal, p. A4. JFA Institute. (2007, November). Unlocking America: Why and how to reduce America’s prison population. Retrieved November 10, 2007, from www. jfa-associates. com U. S. Department of Justice. (2006, September 6). Study finds more than half of all prison and jail inmates have mental health problems. Retrieved May 1, 2009, from http://www. ojp. usdoj. gov/newsroom/pressreleases/2006/BJS06064. htm McCuan, R. , Prins, S. , & Wasarhaley, N. (2007). Resources and challenges: Corrections and mental health collaborations. August 2007, Corrections Today: Female Offenders Collins, T. (2006). Ohio Department of Rehabilitation & Correction: Pieces of the puzzle. Retrieved May 1, 2009, from http://www. drc. ohio. gov/ Dawn, B. (2007). Managing the â€Å"other† inmate. Retrieved May 1, 2009, from http://www. corrections. com Wilkinson, R. A. (1998). The impact of community service work on adult state prisons using a restorative justice framework. Division of Research and Advanced Studies of the University of Cincinnati, College of Education. Haney, C. (2007). Testimony of Professor Craig Haney. Prison overcrowding: Harmful consequences and dysfunctional reactions. University of California, Santa Cruz.