Wednesday, December 25, 2019
In certain essays, elements such as ethos, logos, and pathos are used to help convey a message to its readers. Authors use ethos to appeal to ethics, and is also a meaning to convince a reader to see the credibility of the persuader. Logos is used to appeal to logic using maps, detailed facts, and charts. Finally Pathos, which is used to show sympathy and empathy a reader feels while reading the essay. In the essay, Ã¢â¬Å"The CIA Planned John F. KennedyÃ¢â¬â¢s Assassination,Ã¢â¬ author Steven Hager, editor of High Times magazine uses many examples of the three elements to help illustrate the specific details in his article. To begin, Hager used ethos in his essay to help his readers be convinced the reader to see the credibility of the persuader. Hager used lots of ethos elements to help make his source seem reliable. To begin the author gained credibility by explaining many different views on the investigation over both KennedyÃ¢â¬â¢s assassination and Lee Harvey Oswald s de ath. One major point that Hager brought up was that Kennedy did not have much tolerance for the CIA after they blatantly went behind his back and forced troops into Cuba for war. All Kennedy wanted was peace, and he tried very hard to settle generously without war with Cuba. In return Kennedy had some of the CIA directors fired for their actions. Furthermore, Hager also demonstrated ethos when he explained how Jim Garrison, an attorney during the time of the assassination took on the case and stuck to it till he foundShow MoreRelatedThe Assassination Of John F. Kennedy1626 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesThe Assassination of John F. Kennedy John F. Kennedy, the 35th President of the United States, was assassinated on November 22, 1963 at 12:30 p.m Central Standard Time in Dallas, Texas while riding in a motorcade in Dealey Plaza. Kennedy was fatally shot by Lee Harvey Oswald while he was riding with his wife, Jacqueline, Texas Governor John Connally, and Connally s wife, Nellie, in a presidential motorcade. A ten-month investigation by the Warren Commission from November 1963 to September 1964Read MoreWho Killed JFK? Essay1699 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesReview of Research The assassination of John F. Kennedy is said to be, as from the Warren report, a murder. The Warren report states that a man, Lee Harvey Oswald, fired 3 shots from the 6th floor of the Texas Book State Depository building. One missed the PresidentÃ¢â¬â¢s motorcade completely; another hit President Kennedy in the neck, and the last hit him in the head, which was later said after an autopsy, to be the cause of death. The problem with the Warren report is that some eyewitnessesRead MoreThe Assassination Of The War And Formation Of Civil Rights1550 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages Political Assassination Danielle Ferreira U.S Government Date Introduction Political assassination is defined as the act of killing a political figure mainly for political reasons. In most cases, the motive behind political assassinations is beyond the person who is killed. Assassinations have been rampant across the globe for ages and these assassinations do cause lots of political instabilities in a country especially when key personalities such as heads of states are the victimsRead MoreThe American Mafia, An Italian American Organized Crime Network Essay1730 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesnotorious characters such as Al Capone and John Gotti have captivated the publicÃ¢â¬â¢s attention and became a part of popular culture. During the final part of the 20th century, the government used anti-racketeering laws to convict high-ranking mobsters and weaken the Mafia. However, it remains in business today (Mafia in the United States). An involvement with the mafia was JFK s Death On November 22, 1963. It was one of the most controversial assassinations to one of the greatest leaders in AmericaRead MoreMilitary Industrial Complex During The Farewell Speech1710 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pageshave argued that Kennedy planned to end the involvement of the United States in Vietnam, and was therefore targeted by those who had an interest in sustained military conflict, including the Pentagon and defense contractors. Former Texas Senator Ralph Yarborough in 1991 stated: Had Kennedy lived, I think we would have had no Vietnam War, with all of its traumatic and divisive influences in America. I think we would have escaped that. According to author James Douglass, Kennedy was assassinatedRead MoreWho Killed John Fitzgerald Kennedy?3029 Words Ã |Ã 13 PagesWho killed John Fitzgerald Kennedy? This question can be considered as cryptic as the meaning of life. Does anyone know who killed Kennedy? The J.F.K Assassination is a conspiracy wrapped in a conspiracy, wrapped in an enigma? Can the people of the world serious accept what the U.S government has told them - Lee Harvey Oswald single handily killed the President of the U.S.A? Evidence shows that it seems possible that the American Central Intelligence Agency could have been involved in the presidentRead MoreAccording To The Length Of The History Of The United States,1975 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pagesthe United States is the death of John F. Kennedy. Up to now, 53 years have passed since Ã¢â¬Å"the judgement dayÃ¢â¬ , the government has not figured the accurate answer about the murdering of Kennedy as well as the slayer who killed him. Unfortunately, everything we are having right now is just theories, and enigmatic ideas. Apparently, each of the presidents has their own mystery and ambiguous things behind it, however, the last presidentÃ¢â¬â¢s assassination (John F Kennedy) was the most confused and crypticRead MoreThe Role Of David Ferrie On The Assassination Of President John. F. Kennedy3057 Words Ã |Ã 13 PagesFerrie played in the assassination of President John. F. Kennedy. There are many conspiracy theories surrounding the killing of President Kennedy, and this paper seeks to show how David Ferrie fits into the theories, and how he caused the death of one of the most prolific presidents in the history of United States. Special attention will be give to the New Orleans Conspiracy, because it is one of the theories that strongly link David Ferrie to the assassination of J. F. Kennedy. Various reports andRead MoreThe J.F.K. Assassination1801 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesThe J.F.K. Assassination The 1960 Presidential election was won by John F. Kennedy who defeated the incumbent Vice President Richard Nixon by the narrowest margin in history. Kennedy, a senator from Massachusetts was the only Roman Catholic and the youngest man elected to the presidency. In 1963, during his third year in office President Kennedys popularity increased and he had already started planning for his reelection campaign. On the morning of November 23, 1963, the President flew to DallasRead MoreJohn F. Kennedy s President Of The United States Essay1854 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesÃ¢â¬Å"And so, my fellow Americans, ask not what your country can for you Ã¢â¬â ask what you can do for your country.Ã¢â¬ John F. Kennedy, the 35th President of the United States, was the top rated and popular president the U.S. has ever had. During his roughly 1000 days in office he had an approval rating of 70% with the closest being Dwight Eisenhower with 65%. Since then, 74% of people believe he did an above average or outstanding job while only 3% believe he did a below average or poor job. With all of
Tuesday, December 17, 2019
In Book II of PlatoÃ¢â¬â¢s Republic, Glaucon and Adeimantus present a challenge to SocratesÃ¢â¬â¢ view of justice. Previously, in Book I of the Republic, Socrates presents several counterarguments to ThrasymachusÃ¢â¬â¢ belief that it is to your own advantage to practice injustice rather than to follow laws, if you can get away with it (Babcock). Glaucon and Adeimantus sought to present a stronger defense to ThrasymachusÃ¢â¬â¢ view. The main viewpoint they try to establish is that it is to our advantage to practice injustice rather than justice and that the good life is the life of injustice (Babcock). Several arguments are used to reinforce the central view through use of the Ring of Gyges story, an account of the origin of justice, a classification ofÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Mixed goods are the second class of goods. They are desirable for their own sake, and the sake of their consequences. Lastly, instrumental goods are goods that are not desirable for their own sake, but only desirable for the consequences they bring. Glaucon believes that justice is an instrumental good, and presents several persuasive arguments on exactly why he believes this. If justice is considered to be an instrumental good, this would mean that justice is only practiced for the consequences it brings. The rewards of this virtue could provide you with enhanced reputation, political or social status, and praises. In that sense, justice is rendered meaningless if not recognized by others. If no one knows youÃ¢â¬â¢re being just, no beneficial consequences can come from it through other people. Therefore Glaucon thinks that you might as well practice injustice while still maintaining a false reputation for justice (Babcock). By simply maintaining the false persona of a just person, you could reap the rewards of the virtue without having to practice it. Meanwhile, you could practice injustice, which is much more beneficial than solely being just and reap the rewards of both . In addition to this, Adeimantus further supports GlauconÃ¢â¬â¢s arguments by pointing out that justice is only ever praised by people for the good consequences it brings us, while injustice is only ever censored by people due to the bad
Sunday, December 8, 2019
Necessity is the Mother of Invention The quote, Necessity is the mother of invention, is a pretty well known saying. Like most quotes, they can have different meanings for different people. To me, this quote means that without ever having to need anything, nothing would have been invented. Without necessity, the need for new inventions, such as the fire or even the television, may have never been found or even thought of. Also, with the need of certain things, you can help improve your life and the lives of others. New inventions and ideas happen all the time. Some are planned and others arent. Necessity plays a key role in the beginnings of new inventions. A few months ago, hurricanes came ripping through Florida and many of my family members and friends didnt have power for several weeks. We met at someones house and tried to make the best out of a very difficult situation. We will write a custom essay sample on Necessity Is Mother of Invention or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page While the adults sat inside and chatted, all the kids gathered on the porch to make up a game that would consume time and amuse us all on the same token. With only a few scraps from Twister, Monopoly, and Checkers, we made a game more comical than any other game I have ever heard of. As our parents beckoned us inside, we begged our parents to stay. Knowing we couldnt win them over, we gathered all the pieces, so we could play again. Improving yours and others lives can bring about many necessities that must be dealt with. Not only can it help someone become a little less stressed, but you can also have a little fun. When my family and I would arrive home after a long day, we decided to invent a Family Game Night. I remember one week, when you could feel the tension in the room. Dad had Just come through the door and mom was busy cleaning the kitchen as I prepared the game room for our family night. Everyone, including me must have had a very trying day. When everything was set, we sat down and gingerly started to play. Soon, everyone was so hysterical that tears were coming from their eyes. Clearly, since our invention of our Family Game Night the need for everyone to have some fun and relax was finally solved. The need for some things can bring about new inventions, which can be fun and very rewarding. Even during hard times and times when everyone cant seem to relax, new inventions can bring some long needed entertainment. Thats why Necessity is the mother of invention.
Sunday, December 1, 2019
The Education Week and Psychologic Record studies say that 54% of learners, who have had to write academic papers, admit to appropriating materials from the Internet into their own works. And no one can claim that this statistics is exact because there is no guarantee that all the students told the truth while participating in the research. But we both know that plagiarism is a common thing now, especially in academic writing because the deadlines have become tighter and the tasks harder. However, this doesnt mean that stealing someones work is a solution. On the contrary such move can bring serious consequences for your whole life, so you need to avoid it at all costs. And in order to do that, you first need to understand which forms plagiarism can take: Using parts of the texts without citing. Adopting someones ideas without giving the credit. Including images, graphs, tables or any other graphic material that hasnt been created by you and hasnt been credited. Creating derivatives from works that are copyright protected. Plagiarizing accidentally even if you copied something without being aware of it, you would still bear consequences as if it is a regular form of plagiarism. Thats how this phenomenon is defined, and you must do everything possible to keep away from it. 4 Strategies to Avoid Plagiarism in Academic Writing We know that copying and imitating are the easiest ways to deal with the reality. But you have gone to college because you have chosen the hard-way path, so embrace it and go above and beyond to be original in the eyes of your professors. 1. Get Good at Paraphrasing Well, its obvious that almost all your ideas, thoughts and opinions are based on someone elses concepts. Does that mean that youre plagiarizing on every step that you make? Fortunately, no the plagiarism rules are not that absurd. The skill that helps us be more individual is called paraphrasing which is widely used in academic writing. If you spot a statement that appeals to you and to your assignment, think it over and rewrite it in your own words. Try to avoid appropriating more than two lexemes in a row from the original source not to fall under suspicion. For example: The Internet is a global phenomenon that has changed the way we communicate, do business, shop, and live our lives in general. Your version can be: New technology has influenced the way how we approach our lives. 2. Add Your Own Ideas The main goal of writing academic papers is to teach you how to perceive information, analyze it, make conclusions and use them in similar circumstances. For that, you need to be able to form your own arguments and statements basing on critical analysis of the data. And when you produce text as a result of such contemplations, it comes out as a combination of your ideas and someone elses ones. For instance, if you write about the television and its influence, you may share some statistics that TV promotes aggression and violence. Use them as arguments if you decide to emphasize negative impact of the television. 3. Take Citing Seriously We mean it: dont neglect the fact that you need to cite all the sources and quote all the words that you include in your writing and that are not the products of your thinking. Make it your main rule to check whether you mentioned all the links and references that have kindly provided you with ideas for the content of your paper. You can automate it: Ctrl+F every cited author, press Find further till it hits the end of your writing. Mark the entry bold, and do the same with the next cited author. 4. Order a Model Paper from a Writing Company Our writers working for academic agencies produce 100% original texts and follow all the major citation rules. By getting a sample written by one of our professionals, you will have a chance to see how to paraphrase, state your own ideas, interlace the thoughts of scientists with your own ones, and, most importantly, how to cite properly. We hope that this article has persuaded you that plagiarism is not a way out of a difficult situation with academic papers. Consider our advice and avoid copying as much as you can.
Tuesday, November 26, 2019
Poder Conjugation in Spanish, Translation, and Examples Poder is a common auxiliary verb that is frequently used as the equivalent of can or to be able to. Its conjugation is highly irregular; it is a stem-changing verb, since the -o- in the stem often changes to -u- or -ue-, and the ending may also change. There are no other verbs that follow the same pattern. This article includes poder conjugations in the indicative mood (present, past, conditional, future), the subjunctive mood (present and past), the imperative mood, and other verb forms. Poder Present Indicative In the present indicative tense, the stem change o to ue occurs in all the conjugations except nosotros and vosotros. Yo puedo Yo puedo hablar dos idiomas. I can speak two languages. TÃ º puedes TÃ º puedes bailar bien. You can dance well. Usted/Ã ©l/ella puede Ella puede hacer un excelente trabajo. She can do an excellent job. Nosotros podemos Nosotros podemos correr una maratÃ ³n. We can run a marathon. Vosotros podÃ ©is Vosotros podÃ ©is ir a la fiesta. You can go to the party. Ustedes/ellos/ellas pueden Ellos pueden tocar un instrumento. They can play an instrument. Preterite Indicative There are two forms of the past tense in Spanish: the preterite and the imperfect. The preterite describes completed actions in the past. Some verbs have slightly different meanings when they are conjugated in the preterite versus the imperfect. When using poder in the preterite, it implies that the action was successfully accomplished, while in the imperfect tense it only gives the sense that the subject had the ability to do the action, but it is not clear whether it was accomplished or not. For this reason, poder in the preterite is translated as was able to. Also, notice that the stem changes from o to u for this irregular conjugation of the preterite. Yo pude Yo pude hablar dos idiomas. I was able to speak two languages. TÃ º pudiste TÃ º pudiste bailar bien. You were able to dance well. Usted/Ã ©l/ella pudo Ella pudo hacer un excelente trabajo. She was able to do an excellent job. Nosotros pudimos Nosotros pudimos correr una maratÃ ³n. We were able to run a marathon. Vosotros pudisteis Vosotros pudisteis ir a la fiesta. You were able to go to the party. Ustedes/ellos/ellas pudieron Ellos pudieron tocar un instrumento. They were able to play an instrument. Imperfect Indicative The imperfect tense describes ongoing or repeated actions in the past. Poder in the imperfect tense implies that someone had the ability to do something, but it doesnt say whether they did it or not. Therefore, poder in the imperfect can be translated as could or used to be able to. Yo podÃ a Yo podÃ a hablar dos idiomas. I could speak two languages. TÃ º podÃ as TÃ º podÃ as bailar bien. You could dance well. Usted/Ã ©l/ella podÃ a Ella podÃ a hacer un excelente trabajo. She coulddo an excellent job. Nosotros podÃ amos Nosotros podÃ amos correr una maratÃ ³n. We could run a marathon. Vosotros podÃ ais Vosotros podÃ ais ir a la fiesta. You could go to the party. Ustedes/ellos/ellas podÃ an Ellos podÃ an tocar un instrumento. They could play an instrument. Future Indicative The future tense is usually conjugated by starting with the infinitive form, but notice that poder is irregular, since it uses the stem podr- instead. Yo podrÃ © Yo podrÃ © hablar dos idiomas. I will be able to speak two languages. TÃ º podrs TÃ º podrs bailar bien. You will be able todance well. Usted/Ã ©l/ella podr Ella podrhacer un excelente trabajo. She will be able todo an excellent job. Nosotros podremos Nosotros podremos correr una maratÃ ³n. We will be able torun a marathon. Vosotros podrÃ ©is Vosotros podrÃ ©is ir a la fiesta. You will be able togo to the party. Ustedes/ellos/ellas podrn Ellos podrn tocar un instrumento. They will be able toplay an instrument. PeriphrasticÃ Future IndicativeÃ Yo voy a poder Yo voya poder hablar dos idiomas. I am going to be able to speak two languages. TÃ º vasa poder TÃ º vasa poder bailar bien. You aregoing to be able todance well. Usted/Ã ©l/ella vaa poder Ella vaa poder hacer un excelente trabajo. She isgoing to be able todo an excellent job. Nosotros vamosa poder Nosotros vamosa poder correr una maratÃ ³n. We aregoing to be able torun a marathon. Vosotros vaisa poder Vosotros vaisa poder ir a la fiesta. You aregoing to be able togo to the party. Ustedes/ellos/ellas vana poder Ellos vana poder tocar un instrumento. They aregoing to be able toplay an instrument. Present Progressive/Gerund Form The progressive tenses use estar with the gerund, pudiendo. Notice that the stem changes from o to u in the gerund. Although the auxiliary verb poder can be used in the progressive form, it is not really used in that way in English, thus the translation might sound a bit awkward. Present Progressive ofPoder est pudiendo Ella est pudiendo hacer un excelente trabajo. She is being able to do an excellent job. Past Participle The perfect tenses are made by using the appropriate form of haber and the past participle, podido. Present Perfect of Poder ha podido Ella ha podido hacer un excelente trabajo. She has been able to do an excellent job. Conditional Indicative Just like the future tense, the conditional tense is usually conjugated by starting with the infinitive form, but in the case of poder the stem is actually podr-. Yo podrÃ a Yo podrÃ a hablar dos idiomas si viviera en otro paÃ s. I would be able to speak two languages if I lived in another country. TÃ º podrÃ as TÃ º podrÃ as bailar bien si practicaras ms. You would be able todance well if you practiced more. Usted/Ã ©l/ella podrÃ a Ella podrÃ ahacer un excelente trabajo, pero es muy perezosa. She would be able todo an excellent job, but she is very lazy. Nosotros podrÃ amos Nosotros podrÃ amos correr una maratÃ ³n si entrenramos suficiente. We would be able torun a marathon if we trained enough. Vosotros podrÃ ais Vosotros podrÃ ais ir a la fiesta si te dieran permiso. You would be able togo to the party if you got permission. Ustedes/ellos/ellas podrÃ an Ellos podrÃ an tocar un instrumento si tomaran clases. They would be able toplay an instrument if they took lessons. Present Subjunctive The present subjunctive has the stem change o to ue in all of the conjugations except nosotros and vosotros, just like in the present indicative tense. Que yo pueda Mam espera que yo pueda hablar dos idiomas. Mom hopes that I can speak two languages. Que tÃ º puedas El instructor espera que tÃ º puedas bailar bien. The instructor hopes that you can dance well. Que usted/Ã ©l/ella pueda El jefe espera que ella pueda hacer un excelente trabajo. The boss hopes that she can do an excellent job. Que nosotros podamos El entrenador espera que nosotros podamos correr una maratÃ ³n. The trainer hopes that we can run a marathon. Que vosotros podis Patricia espera que vosotros podis ir a la fiesta. Patricia hopes that you can go to the party. Que ustedes/ellos/ellas puedan Su padre espera que ustedes puedan tocar un instrumento. Your father hopes that you can play an instrument. Poder Imperfect Subjunctive There are two options for conjugating the imperfect subjunctive, and both options have the stem change o to u. Option 1 Que yo pudiera Mam esperaba que yo pudiera hablar dos idiomas. Mom hoped that I could speak two languages. Que tÃ º pudieras El instructor esperaba que tÃ º pudieras bailar bien. The instructor hoped that you could dance well. Que usted/Ã ©l/ella pudiera El jefe esperaba que ella pudiera hacer un excelente trabajo. The boss hoped that she could do an excellent job. Que nosotros pudiÃ ©ramos El entrenador esperaba que nosotros pudiÃ ©ramoscorrer una maratÃ ³n. The trainer hoped that we could run a marathon. Que vosotros pudierais Patricia esperaba que vosotros pudierais ir a la fiesta. Patricia hoped that you could go to the party. Que ustedes/ellos/ellas pudieran Su padre esperaba que ustedes pudieran tocar un instrumento. Your father hoped that you could play an instrument. Option 2 Que yo pudiese Mam esperaba que yo pudiese hablar dos idiomas. Mom hoped that I could speak two languages. Que tÃ º pudieses El instructor esperaba que tÃ º pudieses bailar bien. The instructor hoped that you could dance well. Que usted/Ã ©l/ella pudiese El jefe esperaba que ella pudiese hacer un excelente trabajo. The boss hoped that she could do an excellent job. Que nosotros pudiÃ ©semos El entrenador esperaba que nosotros pudiÃ ©semoscorrer una maratÃ ³n. The trainer hoped that we could run a marathon. Que vosotros pudieseis Patricia esperaba que vosotros pudieseis ir a la fiesta. Patricia hoped that you could go to the party. Que ustedes/ellos/ellas pudiesen Su padre esperaba que ustedes pudiesen tocar un instrumento. Your father hoped that you could play an instrument. Poder Imperative The imperative mood is used to give orders or commands. It is not common to give someone the command to be able to do something. Therefore, the imperative forms of poder sound awkward, especially in the negative forms. Positive Commands TÃ º puede Ã ¡Puede bailar bien! Be able to dance well! Usted pueda Ã ¡Pueda hacer un excelente trabajo! Be able to do an excellent job! Nosotros podamos Ã ¡Podamos correr una maratÃ ³n! Let's be able to run a marathon! Vosotros poded Ã ¡Poded ir a la fiesta! Be able to go to the party! Ustedes puedan Ã ¡Puedan tocar un instrumento! Be able to play an instrument! Negative Commands TÃ º no puedas Ã ¡No puedas bailar bien! Don't be able to dance well! Usted no pueda Ã ¡No pueda hacer un excelente trabajo! Don't be able to do an excellent job! Nosotros no podamos Ã ¡No podamos correr una maratÃ ³n! Let's not be able to run a marathon! Vosotros no podis Ã ¡No podis ir a la fiesta! Don't be able to go to the party! Ustedes no puedan Ã ¡No puedan tocar un instrumento! Don't be able to play an instrument!
Friday, November 22, 2019
State-by-State Listing of Vital Records Available Online Search indexed vital records online or browse actual digitized images of certificates of birth, death and marriage online. This listing directs you to vital records online for the United States, organized by state. The majority of these online vital records can be accessed for free. Those that require a fee to search or view are clearly indicated. Alabama Alabama Death Records, 1908-1974 FreeA free name index to death certificates from the state of Alabama. Extracted information includes (where available) full birth and death date, place of birth and death, parents names, spouses name and occupation. Arizona Arizona Genealogy Birth and Death Certificates, 1844-1964Ã FreeSearch public birth certificates (1855-1933) and public death certificates (1844-1958) from the state of Arizona. This free vital records resource from Arizona Department of Health Services includes PDF images of the actual certificates. Western States Marriage Records Index FreeThis growing database includes names and other information extracted from mostly pre-1900 marriage records in several western states, including quite a few from Arizona. More recent marriage records (as late as 1950s) are also included for several Arizona counties. California Western States Marriage Records Index FreeThis growing database includes names and other information extracted from mostly pre-1900 marriage records in several western states, including California - most notably the counties of Kern, Santa Barbara and Santa Clara. More recent marriage records are also included for several California counties. Colorado Western States Marriage Records Index FreeThis growing database includes names and other information extracted from 19th and 20th century marriage records in several western states, including a little over 5,000 records from Colorado. The majority of the included Colorado records are from Gilpin and Douglas counties. Delaware Delaware State Birth Records, 1861-1908 FreeSearchable name index and images of Delaware birth records, including delayed birth records, free from FamilySearch. Florida Florida Deaths, 1877-1939 FreeFree name index of Florida death records created by Florida Department of Health and Vital Statistics. Extracted information in this database includes (where available) full birth and death date, place of birth and death, parents names, spouses name, occupation, and date and place of burial. Georgia Georgia Death Records, 1914-1927 FreeThe Georgia State Archives has online digitized copies of death certificates issued by the state of Georgia between 1919 and 1927. There are also a number of certificates from 1914-1918, with the bulk dating from 1917 and 1918. Idaho Idaho Death Certificates, 1911-1937 FreeFree name index to death certificates from the state of Idaho includes most information found on the original certificates including (where available) full birth and death date, place of birth and death, parents names, spouses name, occupation, and date and place of burial. From FamilySearch. Western States Marriage Records Index FreeThis growing database includes names and other information extracted from 19th and 20th century marriage records in several western states, including over 180,000 marriage records from the state of Idaho. Illinois Cook County Birth Certificates, 1878-1922 FreeFamilySearch offers indexes and images of certificates of birth as recorded at Cook County, Illinois - including the City of Chicago. Collection still being digitized and placed online and currently includes only years 1878-1915. Cook County Birth Registers, 1871-1915 FreeName index and images of birth registers as recorded at Cook County, Illinois - including the City of Chicago, online at FamilySearch. Collection currently includes years 1871-1879, 1906-June 1907, and July 1908-1915. Cook County Marriage Records, 1871-1920 FreeSearch or browse name index and images of marriage licenses and returns recorded in Cook County, Illinois, including the City of Chicago, online at FamilySearch. Illinois Statewide Marriage Index, 1763-1900 FreeThe Illinois State Archives and the Illinois State Genealogical Society offer this free searchable index online. Available information includes the full name of both parties, date and county of marriage, a nd the Vol. and page number, and/or the license number for the marriage record. Cook County Clerks Office - Birth Certificates, Marriage Licenses and Death Certificates Search is free. Payment required to view digital certificates.The Cook County Clerks Office hosts this pay-per-view Web site to access their birth certificates (75 years or older), marriage licenses (50 years or older) and death certificates (20 years or older). Searches are free. Payment is required to view digital copies of the actual certificates. Covers Cook County and the City of Chicago. Indiana Indiana Marriages, 1911-1959 FreeIndexed in partnership with the Indiana Genealogical Society, this free online name index includes details taken from marriage returns and licenses for the counties of Adams, Blackford, Decatur, Franklin, Henry, Huntington, Owen, Rush, and Sullivan. Kentucky Kentucky Death Certificates and Records, 1852-1953 Paid Ancestry.com subscription requiredThis Ancestry.com collection includes the Kentucky Death Index 1911-2000, plus digitized Kentucky death certificates from 1911-1953. Earlier death records including mortuary records, registers of death and return of death are also available for many counties.Kentucky Birth Index 1911-1999 Paid Ancestry.com subscription requiredAn index to births recorded in the U.S. state of Kentucky between 1911 and 1999, including the following information: name, gender, race, birth date, birthplace, and parents names.Kentucky Marriage Index 1973-1999 FreeAn index to about 2.3 million individuals who were married in Kentucky between 1973 and 1999 from the University of Kentucky. Also included are a Kentucky Death Index 1911-1992 and Kentucky Divorce Index 1973-1993Kentucky Vital Records Project FreeThis free resource includes the statewide Kentucky Death Index, plus approximately 250,000 digitized Kentucky dea th certificates from the twentieth century. Louisiana Louisiana Deaths, 1850-1875; 1894-1954 FreeThis free name index to Louisiana Deaths from FamilySearch includes statewide death records for all parishes for 1911-1954. Earlier death records available only for Jefferson Parish, 1850-1875 and 1905-1921. Maine Maine Marriage Index FreeThe Maine State Archives features this searchable online Marriage Index covering the years 1892 to 1996.Maine Death Index FreeA searchable online Death Index covering the years 1960 to 1996 from the Maine State Archives. Massachusetts Massachusetts Death Records, 1841-1915 FreeA free name index and digitized images of Massachusetts statewide death registers and certificates from FamilySearch.Massachusetts Vital Records, 1841-1910 Requires paid membership to NEHGSA name index and digitized images of Massachusetts statewide birth, death and marriage registers and certificates from the New England Historic Genealogical Society (NEHGS). Not all record images yet online, but those that are not can be ordered from NEHGS for a small fee.Massachusetts Vital Records, 1911-1915 Requires paid membership to NEHGSA name index and digitized images of Massachusetts statewide birth, death and marriage registers and certificates from the New England Historic Genealogical Society (NEHGS). Births currently completed, marriages complete through 1914 and deaths still to be added in the future. Michigan Michigan Death Records, 1897-1920 FreeThe Seeking Michigan collection from the Library of Michigan features nearly 1 million digital images of death certificates online for free searching and viewing. Use the Search Digital Archive box at the top of this page to search this and other Seeking Michigan collections.Michigan Deaths, 1867-1897 FreeA free name index and digitized images of Michigan statewide death registration entries from FamilySearch.Michigan Births, 1867-1902 FreeA free name index and digitized images of Michigan statewide birth registration entries from FamilySearch.Michigan Marriages, 1867-1902 FreeA free name index and digitized images of marriages recorded in the state of Michigan from FamilySearch. Minnesota Minnesota Death Certificates Index FreeThe Minnesota Historical Society has a great online index to Minnesota death records from death cards from 1904 to 1907 and death certificates from 1908 to 2001.Minnesota Birth Certificates Index FreeA free index to Minnesota birth records from 1900-1934, and selected records from pre-1900 from te Minnesota Historical Society.Minnesota Official Marriage System FreeFree searchable index to marriage certificates from 87 participating Minnesota counties. Most marriage records date back to the 1860s, although some counties have them back to the early 1800s. Index links take you to an easy order form for purchasing a copy of the marriage certificate. Missouri Missouri Death Certificates, 1910-1958 FreeThe Missouri State Archives steps up with this free index and digital images to statewide Missouri death certificates from 1910-1958. New Hampshire New Hampshire Birth Records, Early to 1900 FreeFamilySearch has online a free index and digital images of early New Hampshire birth records to 1900. New Mexico New Mexico Death Records, 1889-1945 FreeFamilySearch has online a free name index to death certificates and records of death from the state of New Mexico. Available information (where provided) includes full name, date and place of birth and death, spouse and/or parents names, occupation and date/place of burial. North Carolina North Carolina Deaths, 1906-1930 FreeFamilySearch features a free name index and digital images of death certificates recorded in the state of North Carolina Ohio Ohio Deaths, 1908-1953 FreeA free name index and digital images of Ohio statewide death certificates from FamilySearch. Pennsylvania Philadelphia City Death Certificates, 1803-1915 FreeThis free online collection from FamilySearch includes a variety of digitized death records, depending on the time period: death certificates, returns of death, and even undertaker transit permits.Philadelphia Marriage Indexes, 1885-1951 FreeDigital marriage indexes online at FamilySearch are arranged by the names of brides and grooms with the year of marriage and license number. Fully searchable. Rhode Island Rhode Island Births Christenings, 1600Ã¢â¬â1914 FreeA partial name index to birth, baptism, and christening records from Rhode Island, compiled from a variety of sources. FamilySearch.org offers coverage details, including how many records are included by location and time period.Rhode Island Deaths Burials, 1802Ã¢â¬â1950 FreeA partial name index to death and burial records from the state of Rhode Island. Most of the records extracted in this database of 840,000 names include source information. FamilySearch includes information on coverage details in this article, with details on included records by time period and locality.Rhode Island Marriages, 1724Ã¢â¬â1916 FreeA partial name index to birth, baptism, and christening records from Rhode Island, compiled from a variety of sources. Scroll down in this article on FamilySearch.org for coverage details, including how many records are included by location and time period. South Carolina South Carolina Deaths, 1915Ã¢â¬â1943FamilySearch hosts this free online collection of digitized S.C. death certificates from the South Carolina Department of Archives and History. Records are arranged by year and alphabetically by locality, and a searchable name index is also available.South Carolina Death Records, 1822Ã¢â¬â1955 Paid Ancestry.com subscription requiredThis searchable database plus digital images includes statewide death certificates, 1915-1955; Charleston City death records, 1821-1914; Spartanburg City death records, 1895-1897 and 1903-1914; and Union City death records, 1900 and 1913-1914.South Carolina Delayed Births, 1766Ã¢â¬â1900 Paid Ancestry.com subscription requiredThis partial database of delayed South Carolina birth certificates (includes digitized images) contains approximately 25,000 birth returns for the city of Charleston, South Carolina from the years 1877-1901, and approximately 55,000 delayed applications for birth certificates from throughout the state, covering the years 1766-1900. South Dakota South Dakota Birth Records Over 100 Years Old FreeMore than 225,000 South Dakota births are searchable in this free online database of birth records from the South Dakota Department of Health, including many delayed birth certificates issued for people born before statewide registration began in 1905.South Dakota Death Index, 1905Ã¢â¬â1955 Paid Ancestry.com subscription requiredThis index to deaths that occurred in South Dakota between 1905 and 1955 contains the death certificate number, name of deceased, county or county code, and date of death. Tennessee Tennessee Death Records, 1914Ã¢â¬â1955 FreeFamilySearch hosts this free searchable database, plus digitized images, of Tennessee death certificates from the beginning of statewide registration in 1914.Tennessee County Marriages, 1790Ã¢â¬â1950 FreeSearch and/or browse images of marriage registers, marriage licenses, marriage bonds, and marriage certificates acquired from local Tennessee county courthouses. This growing collection on FamilySearch is not yet complete browse the records to see what is currently available by county. Texas Texas Deaths, 1890Ã¢â¬â1976 FreeAlmost 9 million digitized records are included in this free collection of Texas statewide death certificates- including delayed certificates, foreign deaths, and probate obituaries- from the Texas Department of State Health Services in Austin, and hosted online by FamilySearch.org.Texas Deaths, 1977Ã¢â¬â1986 FreeImages of Texas statewide death certificates, including delayed certificates, are available online in this free FamilySearch.org collection, from the Texas Department of State Health Services. For a list of records by dates and localities currently published in this collection, select the browse feature. Utah Utah Death Certificate Index, 1904Ã¢â¬â1961 FreeThe Utah Division of Archives Records Service hosts free downloadable images of Utah death certificates for the period 1904 to 1960; 1961 is also available as browsable images, but not yet indexed.Salt Lake County Death Records, 1908-1949 FreeA free name index and images for Salt Lake County death records from 1908-1949 from FamilySearch. Also included are a few deaths occurring before 1908 where the remains were re-interred between 1908 and 1949.Utah Death Registers, 1847Ã¢â¬â1966 Paid Ancestry.com subscription required.This collection of images and index includes deaths that occurred in Utah between 1905 and 1951, Utah death registers for 1898Ã¢â¬â1905 (the dates vary slightly by county, and Grand County includes records for 1961Ã¢â¬â1966), and interment records for Salt Lake City, 1848Ã¢â¬â1933. Vermont Vermont Vital Records, 1760Ã¢â¬â1954 FreeName index and images (index cards) of town clerk transcriptions of births, marriages and deaths in Vermont through 1954. Indexing is ongoing, and additional records from 1955Ã¢â¬â2008 will be added to the collection as they are completed.Vermont Death Records, 1909-2008 Paid Ancestry.com subscription requiredName index and images of death certificates and amended death certificates issued in Vermont from 1955Ã¢â¬â2008. Virginia Death Indexing - Virginia FreeA fully-searchable index to Virginia city and county death registers compiled 1853-1896, part of an on-going project sponsored by the Virginia Genealogical Society. Fifteen cities and counties have been indexed to date.Virginia Births and Christenings, 1853-1917 FreeAlmost 2 million names can be searched in this name index to birth, baptism and christening records from the state of Virginia. Online at FamilySearch.org. Washington Washington State Archives - Birth Records, 1891Ã¢â¬â1907 FreeThe Washington State Archives has begun to digitize the birth records in their collections and make them available online for free. Available birth records cover the period 1891Ã¢â¬â1907 (birth records after 1907 are not open to the public) for most counties.Washington State Archives - Death Records, 1891Ã¢â¬â1907 FreeThe Washington State Archives has begun to digitize the available death records in their collections and put them online for free. Available death records cover the period 1891Ã¢â¬â1907. Post-1907 death records in Washington are not open to the public for research.Washington State Archives - Marriage Records, 1866-2002 FreeThese online marriage records include indexed, digitized images created by the Washington State Archives in a project to make the entire marriage series available from the beginning of marriage record keeping in 1866. The more current index records (approximately 1995 forward) ar e updated by partner Auditors on a periodic basis and may not include images. West Virginia West Virginia Vital Records Research Project FreeOne of the first states to start making vital records available online, West Virginia hosts indexes and images to birth and death records dating back to about 1853, and marriage records dating back to county formations. Records and time periods available vary by county. Wisconsin Wisconsin Genealogy Index FreeSearch for pre-1907 Vital Records, including birth, death, and marriage records, in this free online database of the Wisconsin Historical Society. Wyoming Wyoming Marriages, 1877-1920 FreeA free name index to approximately 14,000 marriage records from the state of Wyoming online at FamilySearch.org.
Thursday, November 21, 2019
Planning for Unknowns - Essay Example In this case where a major hurricane hit the work site, then it is a good case of unknown Ã¢â¬Å"unknownsÃ¢â¬ which nobody may have foreseen (or complete uncertainty) and the best way to be able to deal with this type of risk is setting up a contingency budget (Futrell, Shafer, & Shafer, 2002, p. 591). So if this contingency fund is available, then the strategy would be different. A contingency reserve budget will allow for greater flexibility. The plan will be to hire additional workers to beef up the manpower and allow continuously working even at nights so as to make up for the lost time of ten days. This allows for project completion on the original due date but there will be cost overruns because of added manpower but the target date will be met. The reserve budget can pay for the additional workers to accomplish more work output and also pay for extended working time by effectively doubling it by working even at night
Tuesday, November 19, 2019
Socrates - Research Paper Example To put it in simple words, Protagoras views the principle of morality as a valuable aspect that facilitates social cooperation. On the other hand, Socrates holds a vision about the principle of morality as a matter of an individualsÃ¢â¬â¢ interrelation towards his/her own soul which cannot be taught based on certain defined theories or assumptions contradicting ProtagorasÃ¢â¬â¢ views that a person learns virtue from his early age recently when he/she starts speaking (Plato 5-25). Thesis Statement This study intends to analyze the arguments made by Socrates questioning the dialogues in Protagoras regarding the teachability of virtue and education humans regarding wisdom. ProtagorasÃ¢â¬â¢ acclamations with reference to the viewpoints of Socrates will also be analyzed in this study to recognize the role of a rational agent, its justness and also its goodness in teaching wisdom to individuals. Proper justification will also be rendered with concern to the agreeability of the thesis , i.e. Protagoras. Explanation of the Argument The sole concern of ProtagorasÃ¢â¬â¢ acclamations has been to rationalize that virtue and wisdom of human life can be taught. However, this argument has further been countered by Socrates where he questions the reality concerning the teachability aspects of virtues. ... Conversely, Socrates holds a perception that the diverse aspects of virtue are singular as well as indivisible in nature. As per his beliefs concerning the aspects of courage and wisdom are simply dissimilar names for two similar qualities of good life. Apart from arguing regarding diverse aspects of virtue, the determination of the interrelation between knowledge, doing good and pleasure have also been focused in the rudiments of SocratesÃ¢â¬â¢ arguments based on ProtagorasÃ¢â¬â¢ dialogues. In this connection, Socrates proclaimed that pleasure undividable with the concern of good. This can be further rationalized with reference to SocratesÃ¢â¬â¢ acclamation that anything which seems to be painful is regarded as evil. This particular proclamation of Socrates signified that it is not possible knowingly to do what is good which apparently contradicts the views of Protagoras stating that individuals can be taught of doing good. Moreover, the proclamation put forward by Socrates al so represented with reference to the fact that it is quite unfeasible to live delightfully while performing any sort of evil activity which again rationalizes a strong connection within the various aspects of virtue as described by Protagoras. Conversely, Protagoras argued that there are several people who are not able to measure the most prominent doing that would bring pleasure to them. Hence, as a consequence, wrong activities are generally caused by ignorance that is not to be considered as a conflict or disagreement between ethical duties and the aspirations for pleasure within an individual. According to ProtagorasÃ¢â¬â¢ dialogues, there lay the requirement of a specific art or
Sunday, November 17, 2019
My Psychosocial Stage of Development Essay My Psychosocial Stage of Development S. Pulliam April, 2011 First I would like to define psychosocial development; this is the development of the personality or the acquisition of social attitude and skill from infancy through maturity. Based on the charting from EricksonÃ¢â¬â¢s Psychosocial Stages of Development, I fall into two separate categories based on my age. From the beliefs of Erickson, he believed that the achievements and failures of earlier stages influence later stages, whereas later stages modify and transform earlier ones (Erickson, 1980). The first is Young Adulthood and the second is Middle Adulthood. In the two stages from the chart the information is based on (Young adulthood) Intimacy v/s Isolation and the second one (Middle Adulthood) is based on Generativity v/s Stagnation Work and Parenthood Adults. Although there are two separate stages in the psychosocial stages that I fall under, I feel that I am at the midpoint for each and I have decided to consider both aspects in doing my psychosocial stages of development. To explain how the two stages correlate to my life, I decided in the last year to settle down and get married this is based on my young adulthood information from EricksonÃ¢â¬â¢s chart. The reason there is a correlation to my life based on EricksonÃ¢â¬â¢s chart under middle adulthood id because my life had children prior to the marriage but I am taking a more active role in being involved with activities and school when it comes to my children. In looking at my current psychosocial stage of development influence on my behavior and relationship, I find that I am a calm, and not hard to get along with even under pressure situations that has occurred with us based on my jealous tendencies and insecure ways because of previous relationship and not being with the father of my children. The influence that I see in young adulthood over my relationship is that there is a need for intimacy but not a major desire to have it on a regular basis. The isolation comes from not being so open and friendly to other males in my life or surrounding because of my relationship with my husband. I have male friends that I am social with but I do not allow the intimacy line to be crossed because of my relationship with my husband. The influence that I see in middle adulthood is the need to have a nurturing relationship with my children and creating a positive change to benefit my children lives. In looking at this I made changes in the way I approached my children and how I would not shelter them from the truth when they would ask me questions but give them true answer to their question. As small children I did not feel the need to give much explanation to my childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s questions but now I try to explain everything to them without being untruthful to them or give them false ideas about what is going on around them. To explain the positive and negative outcomes to psychosocial stages of development, I would have to say that there are many positive and negative but the few that stand out to me the most are. First negative outcome, getting over insecurities I had about the intimacy relationship that I chose to take on after breaking off a 10 year relationship with my childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s father. The second negative outcome was getting over the trust issues I had before going into the current marriage that I am in right now. The third negative outcome was getting pass the change of personality and ways I had to endure going into the marriage and getting use to a new personality and making the changes on both parts to make our marriage work to the best of our ability. Based on this information I feel that the positive outcomes to the psychosocial stages of Erickson were in a good way and I can see the difference in my life and marriage. First positive outcome was that I am able to trust again within my relationship with my husband. The second positive outcome was that I made a strong bond with my children and I have not only been a mother to my children but I am the friend that my children confide in when they have feeling they want to express. The third positive outcome I see is that I am calm and stress free with the way I deal with problem within my relationship and I am able to compromise with my spouse when we do not agree on things. In evaluating how other developmental issues have influenced my personality, I would have to say that during my early childhood life I dealt with a few attachment issues with my mother. I feel that during this stage I did not bond with my mother like most children tend to do when the mother is present because she was pre-occupied with her career as a teacher and coaching. So during this age I was in close relationship with my father and I never felt the true connection with myself and my mother like so many girls or women tend to have with a mother. Most of my time I spent with my father and aunts when I was in my early childhood age so I did not really know that much about my mother other than she coached and taught physical education. I admired what she did so I took on the quest of becoming a physical education teacher as well. In School age time I had to bare a lot of pressure in participating in sports and in my school work because the expectation was so high on me to achieve my education and athletic abilities because of what my mother represented in our community. At the same time I was pressured by other students because they felt that the only reason I made the team was because of my mother not because of my own ability. Once I graduated my goals with education were so different. I felt more of the need to help others in crisis situation so I went back to school to get my degree in mental health and social work and that is still my drive today. So from this experience I feel that I have a very strong personality in spite of the way so many tried to bring me down and I am a true fighter for what I believe in deep within my heart. My personality from what I can see is a driving force of who I am and I refuse to be compared to my mother in my quest to achieve greater feats in my life and the way I live my life. It is okay to be compared to her but I know that I could never be my mother or even like her because my drive and ambition is so different from the way she handles things. References http://www. support4change. com/stages/cycles/Erikson. html Erikson E. , 1980. Identity and the Life Cycle. Norton, New York http://currentnursing. com/nursing_theory/theory_of_psychosocial_development. html
Thursday, November 14, 2019
Contemporary Themes of The Merchant of Venice Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã One of the many elements that make up a classic, is that the book, novel or play can be read in any generation, decade, century or in any part of the globe at any time and have relevance to the reader. The themes of the work should be universal, so that the reader can take something and create a parallel to an event or situation in his or her own life. The Merchant of Venice has elements that make it a classic. The Merchant of Venice has many contemporary themes in it. In this essay I will provide you with examples of themes that still hold true today, many years after Shakespeare wrote this masterpiece. The re-occurring themes of love, anti- Semitism and inter-racial marriages are a few examples of contemporary themes that are manifest in The Merchant of Venice that are still issues that we discuss, worry, and care about today. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã A key theme in the book is love. There are many loving relationships in this play and not all are the type that involves the love that a man has for a woman, or vice versa. Bassanio and Portia, Jessica and Lorenzo and Gratiano and Nerissa are all types of love that involve a man and a woman, which are of course relevant to today's society. When one looks deeply into these relationships, they would see parallels to the ones of today. For instance, the concept that all three marriages will probably not last, is a parallel to the number of divorces that are occurring today. More and more divorces are happening and the increase from other years is shocking! One of the main reasons why this is happening is that more people are getting married too fast and leaving no time to realize that there are not meant for each other. This is the same in two - and possibly three - of the relationships. Gratiano and Nerrissa got married after knowing each other for only several hours and Bassiano and Portia got marri ed before they go to know each other (, but you can't fault Portia for this, for strict policies were ordered onto her). Jessica and Lorenzo's marriage might split for other reasons.
Tuesday, November 12, 2019
As a Family run business Wyncraft produces high quality decorative home wear, ranging from mainly wooden products as well as high quality pottery, decorative metals and table decorations. Wyncraft will produce these quality products by using wood from only sustainable Norwegian Forests to maintain the future of the business and the environment from which the products naturally and originally derive from. Objectives: Staff levels of Wyncraft Ã¢â¬â Wyncraft operates with different levels including: Technical Ã¢â¬â the practical job roles involved with production of goods, staff perform tasks set out by manager and supervisors etc. Workforce are usually without authority and controlled by managerial and community level staff. Staff at this level- * Jack in addition to one full-time and one part-time member of staff in the sanding and varnishing department * Fred, Albert (Ã¢â¬Å"TubÃ¢â¬ ) and JR (John Roberts) are hands on in the cutting department and 8 full-time production staff, * Despatch employees Ã¢â¬â 3 full time staff and one driver Graham * Part-timers and home workers Ã¢â¬â assembly assistance * Assistant/secretary Jean Hudson, * Yvonne human resources role, * Harry sales, personnel as well as the books Managerial Ã¢â¬â the technical level interrelates with the managerial level, which is concerned with the co-ordination and integration of work at the technical level. Generally supervisors/managers, the main role is to outline the specific requirements to the technical level form the community level. Other roles include dealing with customers, clients and suppliers. Staff at this level Ã¢â¬â * Harry manages and oversees all operations of the company providing him with high responsibility and authority. * Jack manages the sanding/varnishing department * JR oversees the production department Community Ã¢â¬â the board of directors, this level makes decisions of how the company is to be run by the other interrelated levels. They are responsible for the operation of the organisation as a whole they have authority to provide regulations/requirements in which the rest of the organisation must comply with. In addition this level interrelates with the managerial level to inform of such procedures. Staff at this level Ã¢â¬â * Harry * Jack * Albert * Fred All the brothers above are the owners/directors of Wyncraft where as Harry has more of a managing director role. Although the brothers are at the community level they do operate in the technical level and most operate in the managerial level too. The three levels community, technical and managerial can be represented in a diagram to show the interdependence and authority levels. The diagram highlights the fact that each level could not survive without the other levels. Wyncraft Memorandum To: Harry Roberts From: Ryan Johnson Date: 5/12/04 Re: The importance of good organisational structure Although there are many factors and constraints, which can affect a company structure there is a need to establish a framework of order and system of command by which the work to be undertaken is accomplished successfully. This implies that attention be given to the design and implementation of the company structure. Ã¢â¬Å"Structure can make or break an organisationsÃ¢â¬ (Mullins 2002 p.536) Organisations are groups of people brought together for a specific purpose, for this to be achieved successfully people need to be organised within the best possible structure. (Mullins 2002) In relation to Wyncraft it is necessary to organise and formalise the company into a structure in order to expand successfully and attract and recruit new staff. Good organisational structure can be a means of dividing responsibilities and tasks equally and fairly amongst executives to ensure a simple, effective and functional process for Wyncraft. At present it would appear that Harry Roberts has a higher responsibility level than his co-owners, it can cause pressure for one person to have the majority share in responsibility. It is not good for the company or Harry to oversee all departments and company functions, the role should be shared to ensure that quality is being produced within Wyncraft. If there were shared roles in high responsibility tasks then this could guarantee service and production are of an acceptable standard for Wyncraft. Furthermore specialist staff within managerial department roles could provide Wyncraft with higher standards and production leaving the executives more time to concentrate on further selling and expansion. Wyncraft Proposed Organisation Chart There are many possible structures for organisations to use when considering producing an organisational chart, function, area, process, product and customer. * Function Ã¢â¬â most common structure used, involving the company being split up into departments or specialisations. * Area Ã¢â¬â used by large national or multinational businesses, the concept being that co-ordination is implemented from Head Office to ensure that efforts are not duplicated when different locations carry out similar activities. * Process Ã¢â¬â this is used when requirements for different skills are needed, for example when product is manufactured it passes through several stages requiring different skills for the stages of the process. * Product Ã¢â¬â This is used in large organisations or for companies that have wide product ranges. * Customer Ã¢â¬â this is used when a business has different types of customers who need different and specialised treatment or modified service or products. Most organisations will structure themselves in a way that a variety of structure options are used, different departments could be structured using a different format. In relation to Wyncraft it is appropriate to consider using chart structures that are relevant to its production and process. Although all options should be considered I propose that Process and Function are more practical in terms of Wyncraft. Looking at the above descriptions of structure options Product, customer and area can be ruled out, this is due to the size of the company being relatively small in comparison to large multinational companies and the product range generally quite limited. It is important to remember the main function of the company: production of environmentally friendly quality home wear, which leads on to the need for clear process and function management. Read more:Ã Family Run Business Proposed Process chart for Wyncraft: How WyncraftÃ¢â¬â¢s product is manufactured requires different departments/functions with different skills etc. The diagram above illustrates the process in which the product is made which highlights the need for a clear functional process. With a sufficient functional chart or structure then the process above can be implemented. Departments such as personnel are necessary to be part of the company but are not necessarily part of the process involved in the production of the product. Therefore although personnel and marketing etc. need to be considered a separate structure chart is not necessary at this stage. Proposed function chart for Wyncraft: Organisation Functions An organisation consists of departments they usually take the following format: * Personnel Ã¢â¬â the function of Personnel is typically to control recruitment, provide staff training, promote legal and safety requirements and create policies and procedures. In relation to Wyncraft personnel Yvonne manages issues and although she does not work full time for the company she takes a leading role in this department. Harry oversees this department and manages this role if necessary to cover any period of time Yvonne is not present. Being a company that only employs 48 people many of the typical functions of a Personnel department are not carried out. The kind of issues Yvonne would deal with within Wyncraft would be the less formal and personal aspects of Personnel for example staff absence etc. * Production Ã¢â¬â typically the function of the production department includes manufacturing the product, establishes priority order for consumer demand, works within standards and budgets and maintains flow of production. In relation to Wyncraft the main focus for the company is production, the list above does reflect the function of this department in Wyncraft well. The production department is responsible for cutting; shaping, drilling and preparing all the wood used in the production of their home wear products. They are heavily reliant on machinery and control machinery maintenance and must adhere to safe practice as well as storing and controlling materials. * Sales Ã¢â¬â typically this department sells the product and continually looks to expand and increase sales for the company. In relation to Wyncraft Harry mostly undertakes this role and concentrates on targeting major department stores and smaller (high quality) independent china/gift stores. Sales for Wyncraft is different to most organisations as selling direct to customers would actually most likely loose custom for the company. Sales for Wyncraft are expanding overseas due to the success of their web page; the main function of this department now is to concentrate on expansion overseas to supplying to the major department stores. * Marketing Ã¢â¬â generally consists of establishing consumer demand, promotes the product, examines the market and conducts market research. In relation to Wyncraft it seems apparent that there is no actual department for this function. Harry oversees this role and perhaps as part of his sales he also implements some form of marketing, however as Wyncraft is a small company it is realistic that there is no specific marketing department. Strong client relationships with major department stores could provide Harry with enough knowledge on consumer demand and market research etc. * Finance Ã¢â¬â this department deals with all monetary aspects of the company. Typical roles include, balancing accounts, planning and expenditure, wage and salary administration and account management. In relation to Wyncraft Yvonne is responsible for wages and accounts Harry takes control of the company accounts, all companies no matter what size need to manage their accounts and obviously pay their staff. Wyncraft does not have a specific finance department due to the small size of the company. * Purchasing Ã¢â¬â this department would generally be in charge of buying in materials required for production. In relation to Wyncraft all wood is bought from sustainable Norwegian Forests and quantities are provided from the production department, the product range for Wyncraft is small and therefore no specific department is required to buy repeat materials. * Research and Development Ã¢â¬â this department usually provides improvement for production methods and processes through research, identifies new technology and researches new products. In relation to Wyncraft there is no research and development department although progress has been made on the technological aspect with the implementation of the successful web page. Interdependence between these departments can vary between companies in the case of Wyncraft where not many specific departments exist then it could be assumed that the dependence occurs without recognition. The finance department will provide obvious constraints to all departments because without funding they cannot function. The main function of Wyncraft is obviously production and without this the other functions would have no purpose. Sales department is reliant upon production and vice versa because without demand production is pointless and without production sales are not attainable. Relationships within Wyncraft: = Line relationship = Functional relationship = Staff relationship = Lateral relationship Staff can operate with more than one relationship an example of this is Harry who operates in a staff relationship with his secretary, a line relationship with JR and Jack Roberts and also a lateral relationship with many of the other members of staff.
Saturday, November 9, 2019
Rough Draft of Stuck in Neutral Terry TruemanÃ¢â¬â¢s Stuck in Neutral is about a boy who has Cerebral Palsy and yet loves his life. Shawn McDaniels has a lot of problems but he remains optimistic. His CP has left him totally disabled; he is unable to walk, talk, eat, or communicate. Although Shawn acknowledges that there is Ã¢â¬Å"Bad NewsÃ¢â¬ about his existence, he focuses on the positives in his life. Shawn loves his family deeply and appreciates people. Shawn finds the sensory world of hearing, smell, taste, and inner life, which is filled with his memories and great journeys of his seizures. Shawn is a very loving person. Everyone can see this by how Shawn loves his family and appreciates people. You can see this throughout the book, like Cindy teaching Shawn how to read. Because of Cindy, Shawn now knows how to read, and he now obscene more in the world around him. He loves his father because of what he has done for Shawn. He had Shawn go on a fair ride with him because he felt bad for him, Shawn also appreciates the poem that was made for Shawn and is now a famous poem (pg. 29), and lastly, Shawn has trust in his father because they have double-jointed thumbs and every time he sees Shawn, he would always first pull back his fingers. The reason ShawnÃ¢â¬â¢s dad does this is because they have something in common and Shawn loves this special connection (pg. 52). But lastly Paul. Paul because he stood up for Shawn when he was getting attacked by the hoodlums. Shawn says, Ã¢â¬Å"IÃ¢â¬â¢ve never seen Paul like this before, he looks like a monsterÃ¢â¬ (pg. 94). These are the reasons why he loves his family the most. Shawn finds the sensory world of hearing, smelling, taste, and touching interesting. Shawn has a very distinct personality. Shawn loves the site of the paintings that he has seen, the feel of the sponge and water on his back when he is taking a bath, the sound a 1966 Ford Mustang and the taste of smoked oysters and chocolate pudding (pg. 84). He has always loved when his fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s arm was around him in the park because he has feared that he may kill him, he feels safe and comfortable in his arms (pg. 98). He also remembers when he was at the science convention that he can remember all the sounds of the music that was playing there. He heard all the songs and could remember them all from the songs, melodies, and symphonies. He has and will always remember the things that he has loved. The personality that sets Shawn apart from everyone else is his inner personality. Shawn loves his inner life of memory and seizures. This is what sets him apart from everyone else. This is because he thinks seizures are miracles. Because it is the only thing that lets him free (pg. 31-32). The joys of his seizures is when he feels like he is free, soaring over Seattle and when he sees the different colors. He feels like that is his only time that he feels normal. He feels normal because he can move like a normal person and feel like a normal person. He would sell his family and his friends just to keep his seizures. He would do anything just to keep his seizures. Ã¢â¬Å"I would even give up my family and friends just to keep my seizuresÃ¢â¬ , Shawn. In the book, Shawn faces a lot of obstacles in his life. But then he had some good times, like his love for his family, his sensory world of hearing, smell, taste, and touch, and his love for his inner life of memory and seizures. He doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t care that he has CP, he just want to live his life to the fullest. Everyone can learn from this because now we can say that we are lucky to have a normal life and we can be grateful to not have problems with our body
Thursday, November 7, 2019
Naturalism in Stephen CraneÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"A God in WrathÃ¢â¬ Essay Essays Naturalism in Stephen CraneÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"A God in WrathÃ¢â¬ Essay Paper Naturalism in Stephen CraneÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"A God in WrathÃ¢â¬ Essay Paper The 1880s to the 1940s Markss a period in American Literature known as Realism and Naturalism. This was the clip when most literary plants reflected the thoughts of pessimism and determinism. and where events and even God oppose human free will or stay apathetic to human desires. One writer and poet of this epoch was Stephen Crane. Crane published Ã¢â¬Å"A God in WrathÃ¢â¬ in 1905 in a aggregation of verse forms called The Black Rider and Other Lines. The verse form. which is about a God tormenting a adult male. reflects the repeating subject of naturalism with cases of pessimism. determinism. and withdrawal. Naturalism in Ã¢â¬Å"A God in WrathÃ¢â¬ Pessimism. Pessimism. or the apparent inevitableness of the happening of negative events. fills every line of the Ã¢â¬Å"A God in Wrath. Ã¢â¬ In the verse form. the really fact that a God is penalizing the adult male is possibly the greatest indicant of pessimism sing that no adult male can of all time be greater than a God. Therefore. no adult male can of all time get away a godÃ¢â¬â¢s wrath and so a adult male who is enduring from it will certainly endure till the terminal. Indeed nil can be more pessimistic than that. One peculiar line. Ã¢â¬Å"He cuffed him loudlyÃ¢â¬ ( Crane ) . indicates that the adult male is bound and has no opportunity of flight of all time. Furthermore. one should take note that these turnups are put by a God and hence impossible to acquire rid of. Besides. the turnups are in the signifier of Ã¢â¬Å"thunderous blows that rang and rolled over the earthÃ¢â¬ ( Crane ) . This means that these are non merely simple bonds that merely necessitate a key to take but that they are every bit complicated as they are hard to detach. Possibly one more indicant of pessimism in the verse form is the presence of a crowd of people who are non shown to assist the adult male. or are portrayed as helpless animals that do nil but observe and add to the manÃ¢â¬â¢s hurt by stating Ã¢â¬Å"Ah. what a wicked adult male! Ã¢â¬ ( Crane ) . The adult male in Ã¢â¬Å"A God in WrathÃ¢â¬ is already in deep agony when Ã¢â¬Å"All people came runningÃ¢â¬ ( Crane ) . However. although he Ã¢â¬Å"screamed and struggledÃ¢â¬ ( Crane ) . the crowd. alternatively of assisting him. reprobate him more by naming him wicked. In existent life. one can see people who non merely ignore those who ask for their aid but even see them as immorality. Such is the image of the society that Crane may hold wanted to demo through the component of pessimism in the verse form. Determinism. Determinism in Ã¢â¬Å"A God in WrathÃ¢â¬ centres around the thought that the adult male has no pick but to accept the wrath of God and finally his ain destiny. The whole verse form is a testament to the absence of free will every bit indicated in the manÃ¢â¬â¢s useless battle to get away. ManÃ¢â¬â¢s free will is figuratively strangled when the God Ã¢â¬Å"cuffed him loudlyÃ¢â¬ ( Crane ) and that although he Ã¢â¬Å"screamed and struggledÃ¢â¬ ( Crane ) . which means that he wants to asseverate himself and his free will. no aid arrives and there is no flight. Possibly the manÃ¢â¬â¢s last opportunity of flight is the people who Ã¢â¬Å"came runningÃ¢â¬ ( Crane ) . and possibly he smiles at the fact that all of them seem to come to his assistance. Unfortunately. it seems that he is predestined to endure and possibly even dice of his agony when he finds out subsequently on that the people who come running really do nil but say Ã¢â¬Å"Ah. what a wicked adult male! Ã¢â¬ ( Crane ) . Crane here shows that no sum of shrieks and battles from the adult male. or every adult male in general. can alter the class of nature. the will of a God. or manÃ¢â¬â¢s fate to endure. Detachment. The stone-cold objectiveness in Stephen CraneÃ¢â¬â¢s tone is felt in the verse form in his usage of such unidentified characters as a God. a adult male. and all people. The absence of a capital Ã¢â¬Å"gÃ¢â¬ in Ã¢â¬Å"god. Ã¢â¬ except possibly in the rubric. clearly indicates that this God is non needfully the Christian God but possibly any signifier of divinity considered to be a symbol of cruel and cold absolutism. It can even be faith itself which is shown here that makes adult male suffer. One can besides see that in the verse form. the adult male is nameless. which means that it can stand for any human being peculiarly those who seem to be sing a hopeless battle. Last. the phrase Ã¢â¬Å"all peopleÃ¢â¬ ( Crane ) may stand for everyone else in the universe of the adult male who suffers. Besides. the fact that all of them Ã¢â¬Å"came runningÃ¢â¬ ( Crane ) tells us that they are united in their action. and that when they all together Ã¢â¬Å"cried. Ah. what a wicked adult male! Ã¢â¬ ( Crane ) . one can see that people in general are wicked and frequently show their ridicule and inhuman treatment in unison. On the whole. the component of withdrawal in CraneÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"A God in WrathÃ¢â¬ tells us that the state of affairs portrayed in the verse form and its painful events are non sole to the characters in it but besides to every agony human being. Decision Stephen CraneÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"A God in WrathÃ¢â¬ is a verse form that portrays the elements of the epoch of Literary Realism and Naturalism. which include pessimism. determinism and withdrawal. Pessimism is reflected by manÃ¢â¬â¢s apparently ageless battle with a God that is impossible to suppress and with people who are viciously apathetic to his agony. Determinism is present in the lines that show that his destiny seems inevitable and that no sum of battle and will to last may look plenty to liberate the adult male in the verse form from his agony. Finally. a sense of withdrawal is expressed by the fact that the characters in the verse form are nameless. Hence. this makes the peculiar literary work a mirror of what really goes on in the life of every human being who suffers and how much hurting he has to bear with the wrath of a barbarous God and the inactivity of his apathetic chap worlds. Crane. Stephen. 2010. Ã¢â¬Å"A God in Wrath. Ã¢â¬ Stephen Maria Crane. Poemhunter. com. May 24. 2010. lt ; hypertext transfer protocol: //www. poemhunter. com/poem/a-god-in-wrath-2/ gt ; Crane. Stephen. Ã¢â¬Å"A God in Wrath. Ã¢â¬ Withered Arm and Other Stories. Ed. George Bess. New Jersey: Viking Penguin. 1999. Print.
Tuesday, November 5, 2019
Ways to Translate When Something Happened in Spanish The usual way of saying in Spanish that something happened some period of time ago is to use the verb hace, which isÃ a form of hacer, to make, followed by the period of time. Using Hace to Express Time That Has Passed To express a period of time ago, a phrase using hace can come at the beginning of the sentence or can follow the verb. The main verb of the sentence is most commonly used in the preterite, or the simple past tense, although other tenses are possible. The literal translation of haceÃ can be understood to mean ago, it has been or it was. Spanish Sentence English Sentence Hace cinco aos nuestra escuela fue acreditada. Five years ago, our school was accredited. Es algo que aprend hace poco tiempo. It is something I learned a short time ago. La historia de la ciudad comenz hace mucho tiempo. The story of the city began a long time ago. Hace tres aos yo estaba preparado para salir de casa. Three years ago, I was prepared to leave home. Hace muchos aos un hombre anciano me dijo una historia que su madre le haba dicho. Many years ago, an old man told me a story that his mother had told him. Es la editora del programa, desde su primera emisin hace cuatro aos. She is the editor of the program, since its first broadcast four years ago. Por qu hace un momento me criticabas? Why were you criticizing me a little while ago? Using HaceÃ as Part of a Prepositional Phrase Similar to English, an expression of time can be used as part of a prepositional phrase immediately following a preposition. Spanish Sentence English Sentence El dlar cae a niveles de hace cinco aos. The dollar is falling to levels of five years ago. Hasta hace un momento estudiaban. They were studying until a moment ago. Using HaceÃ to Express the Ongoing Passage of Time If the main verb in a sentence using an hace tiempo phrase is in the present tense, it means that the action began the stated time ago and is continuing. Spanish Sentence English Sentence Hace 20 aos que negociamos con Brasil. We have been trading with Brazil for 20 years. Hace dos aos que tenemos este programa. We have had this program for two years. Hace diez aos que no voy a Guatemala. It has been 10 years since I went to Guatemala. HacerÃ and the Interruption of Time Hacer can be used to talk aboutÃ actions in the past that were interrupted. These expressions are useful for talking about something that had been going on when something else happened. In this case, use hacÃ a as the verb form of hacerÃ and use the active verb in the imperfect past tense. Spanish Sentence English Sentence Haca dos semanas que lea el libro cuando lo perd. I had been reading the book for two weeks when I lost it. Haca un ao que estudiaba espaol cuando viaj a Colombia. I had been studying Spanish for one year when I traveled to Colombia. Dorma haca ocho horas cuando son el reloj. I had been sleeping for eight hours when the alarm went off. Jugbamos con el perro desde haca 15 minutos cuando empez a llover. We had been playing with the dog for 15 minutes when it began to rain.
Sunday, November 3, 2019
Business Strategy in Corporate Giftware industry (PEST Analysis) - Essay Example Corporate giftware is an industry, which caters to almost all the industries across the board, in varying degrees. Sponsoring sports and other events, organizing hospitality events also form part of the corporate gift industry. The profitability of any industry, in general, depends upon five environmental factors enlisted by Porter as: Ã¯â § Buyers'/Consumers' power: This is the power of industryÃ¢â¬â¢s buyers to secure discounts or negotiate added value to products. The consumer profile of Corporate gifts presents a two-dimensional picture. Personalized Corporate gifts are procured by different companies like Intel, Microsoft, Tesco, Asda, Starbucks, Pepsi, Virgin Airways etc. from the companies which are in the business of personalizing the promotional merchandise. This merchandise is then given away to the corporate clients, general customers, students, sales agents, company executives etc or on occasions like employee appreciation, retirement or special recognition etc. Therefore the actual buying power lies in the hands of companies which get such merchandise prepared with their logos/ messages. But to a certain extent, the Ã¢â¬ËpowerÃ¢â¬â¢ is also exercised by the stakeholders, who are the end point receivers of such gifts. The power depends on buyer concentration, information and switching costs. The desires and tastes of stakeholder also keep on changing with times and they expect their companies to give away items which are in tune with the times.
Thursday, October 31, 2019
How We Ourselves Are Destroying the Planet and Future Ways to Prevent Such - Research Paper Example For example, smoke and dusts coming out of motor vehicles, e-wastes, nuclear wastes, chemicals like DDT, pesticides etc are examples of manmade environmental hazards whereas floods, cosmic rays, ultraviolet rays etc are some of the naturally occurring incidents which destroy our earth. Nuclear waste disposal is another thing which destroys our earth. Destruction of forests for heavy industrialization and injudicious industrial procedures are some other factors which give momentum to the destruction of our earth or environment. It is difficult for us to take drastic steps for the protection of our earth even though we talk loudly about the necessities of protecting our environment. In simple terms, protection of earth means allowing all natural things to remain as it is. But it is impossible for us to avoid the facilities offered by heavy industrialization. Nobody would like to walk 10 kilometers instead of using a taxi in the name of environmental or earth protection. However, it is an accepted fact that earth may not survive longer periods if we continue our selfish activities as we do at present. This paper briefly analyses the ways in which we destroy our environment and the possible solutions to avoid the destruction of earth. ... Human has realized the importance of forests in keeping a balanced climate on earth only in the recent times. Trees absorb the dangerous carbon dioxide from atmosphere and liberate more useful oxygen to the atmosphere. For sustaining life on earth, the percentage of carbon dioxide and oxygen in the atmosphere should obey certain ratio. Trees, which helped us to keep the balance between the oxygen and carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, faced heavy destruction in the recent past and from there onwards the destruction of the earth started. Nuclear waste disposal is another way of destruction of earth. Nuclear wastes or Radioactive wastesÃ are normally classified as low-level, medium-level or high-level wastes, according to the amount and types of radioactivity in them (Waste Management, 2007). It may contain harmful radiations like alpha, beta and gamma which can penetrate deep in to our skin and create lot of health problems. Safe disposal of radioactive waste is a major problem faced by the current world. Because of the extended life and the deep penetrating power, it is suicidal to dispose radioactive wastes on earth. Reports from the European press states that Soviet Union is secretly dumping nuclear reactors and radioactive waste into the bordering seas (Rao,n.d, p.1). In other words, prominent countries are disposing nuclear wastes in the proximity of their enemy countries as a strategy to cause problems to the enemy country. Such tactics are not only causing problems to the innocent people, but also to the living things as a whole. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) came up with a scheme for sending radioactive waste into this heliocentric
Tuesday, October 29, 2019
Is there such a thing as fair trade - Essay Example hough fair trade is often regarded as simply as reform initiative, it becomes apparent that Fair Trade is an intervention in the market to mitigate social exclusion, alienation, and economic inequality that uses the productive means of the communities instead of charity. Fair trade has its roots not only in civil society organizations but also includes private sector participants. Critics of corporations may be skeptical to the engagement of profit seeking firms but they offer potential to expose the broader society to Fair Trade products through shelf space in supermarkets and possible future advertising and educational promotions. In the following sections, I offer evidence from the involvement of MNCs role in shaping and formulating economic policies that hinder effective implementation of Fair Trade principles. Thus, through these evidences and in the absence of implementation of these principles, I argue that there is no such thing as Fair Trade, especially when we consider it i n the context of globalization and the role of MNCs. In the past two decades, MNCs have emerged as the dominant player in many industries. In the food industry, where Fair Trade is active, the top five parent companies of roasted and instant coffee (Nestle, Phillip Morris, Sara Lee, Proctor & Gamble, and Tchibo) control about 70% of the market1 and the banana industry is dominated by three oligopolies (Dole, Chiquita, & Del Montel) that control over 65% of the market. In 2003, these three companies had 56% of world banana export shares and 80% of export shares in Central America (FAO, 2003) Economics of scale enable MNCs to reduce the costs of manufacturing and lower prices to benefit consumers but they can also provide the basis for concentrated markets such as an oligopoly with high prices and monopsony power. Evidence of the power of MNCs is seen in the vertical integration where MNCs own banana plantations and control packaging, shipping, importing, and ripening to closely control
Sunday, October 27, 2019
Analysis of Bacteria Strains: Phonotypical Tests Kunthavai Jeevananthan Bacterial Identification Aims: To analyse and identify 10 different strains of bacteria by conducting 19 different tests phonotypical tests. Bacteria also known as eubacteria are microorganisms that are invisible to the naked eye but exist in virtually all environments in the world. Bacteria are classified as part of the Monera kingdom which includes archaebacteria and cyanobacteria. Most bacteria are pathogenic or disease causing however not all bacteria are harmful as there are a number of bacteria that can be found in the human body that have positive benefit to their hosts such as help digest food, secrete hormones, chemicals and vitamins required in cell metabolism and even fight off other harmful bacteria. Bacteria exist in various rod, spiral and spherical shapes and are more numerous than any other living organisms. It is important to be able to identify microorganisms in medical clinic in order to help selection of antibodies. Some pharmaceutical products are also made using bacteria therefore many unknown and unidentified bacteria may be useful in the clinical industries. The taxonomy or a particular bacterial c haracteristic can be used to identify similarities that show relationships with disease related descriptions (Janda and Abbott, 2002). Various laboratory tests have been developed that are based on the type of nutrients a bacterium can grow on, the kind of toxins or waste products they produce or how much variation in growth temperature they can tolerate and their morphology can be used to distinguish closely related strains of bacteria. Rapid test kits have also been developed to identify bacteria in the Enterobacteriaceae genera and other gram negative bacteria. Phonotypical approaches of identifying bacteria does not always provide sufficient information to set taxonomic boundaries between different species the repetition of some phenotypic characteristics make it difficult to separate them. Genotyping is however is more precise when it comes to differentiating bacteria within species that lead to the development of DNA hybridisation. This is a technique used measure the similarities in sequences between the DNA of an isolate and a known bacteria. Before conducting a phonotypical bacterial identification it is important to have a pure culture of the bacteria that needs to be identified so that all components of the cells have grown from a single cell and they are clones of one another also known as Holy Grail (Barrow and Feltham, 1993). The bacterial colonies formed for different types of bacteria have different cultural characteristics on agar plates known as colony morphology these include pigments, size edge, pattern, opacity and shine t herefore macroscopically examining the colonies of bacterial cultures is one of the first important tests in bacterial identification. There may be drawbacks in this technique as the visual interpretation can differ from person to person therefore it might not produce reliable results and also mutations in the bacteria strains occur all the time that may provide slightly different characteristics than normal making difficult or incorrect identification. A number of staining methods can be used to examine the cultures under a microscope such as negative staining which stains the background and leaves the cells clear so that the shape of the bacterial cells, presence of glistening capsule and presence of a diffusive extracellular substance (EPS) around the cell and the arrangement of cells can be determined. Differential staining is a test that divides bacteria into two large groups either gram negative or gram positive. Pink- red staining indicates gram negative bacteria and a blue purple staining shows gram positive bacteria cells. Unevenly stained clear surfaces can be formed on the surface of the bacterial cells during gram staining due to the presence of endospores that can be confirmed using spore stain. Acid fast staining is also used if cells appear long, slender and intertwined in order to confirm the presence of acid fast cells which are bacteria in the genera Mycobacteria and Nocardia that are resistant to gram staining. Oxidase, catalase and the ability of the culture to grow in anaerobic conditions are three tests that are conducted during the first steps of identification. Catalase test is to dip an inoculating needle coated with culture into a droplet of hydrogen peroxide and if the bacteria possesses a catalase enzyme it will breakdown the hydrogen peroxide into water and oxygen that effervesce to form foam. Catalase positive bacteria are usually aerobic while catalase negative bacteria are anaerobic. Cytochrome oxidase is another enzyme found normally in the electron transport chains of an aerobic bacteria and this is tested by adding an artificial substrate such as para amino dimethylaniline that will produce a dark red to black product when oxidised (Cullimore, 2000). Alongside these test the cultures can be tested on their abilities to grow under anaerobic conditions which can further divide them into 4 major groups; strictly aerobic, reduced concentrations of oxygen, both aerobic and anaero bic and strictly anaerobic bacteria. Urease synthesis, gelatin hydrolysis and citrate utilisation are tests that can be conducted to narrowly distinguish bacteria further to help identify their genera. Urease is produced the bacterial genera proteus, providentia and morgenella to break down urea into carbon dioxide and ammonia therefore it is a useful test to help distinguish these genera from other gram negative rods during identification. Urease test is carried out by incubating urea broth with samples of gram negative cultures. The presence of ammonia increases the pH hence turning the phenol red indicator to a pink-purple colour for a positive test (Harvey and Champe et al, 2001). The gelatin hydrolysis test identifies the ability of bacteria to produce gelatinases which can help identification of serratia and proteus. The citrate utilisation tests the ability of the bacteria to utilise citrate as its carbon and energy source used mostly to identify gram negative bacteria. Indole, methyl red- Voges- protease test and fermentation of glucose, sucrose and lactose are also test that are conducted to help assist with identification of bacteria. Indole test is preformed to test the ability of bacteria to breakdown amino acid tryptophan and produce indole that can be detected using KovacÃ¢â¬â¢s reagent. This method is important in the identification of gram negative enterobacteria. Methyl red-Voges- Proskauer on the other hand are two tests that are conducted together as they both require the use of the same medium. The methyl red test identifies the ability of the bacteria to carry out mixed acid fermentations whereas the VP test determines whether the bacteria fermenting sugars via the butanediol pathway by testing for the by-product acetoin. These tests are also useful in differentiating between members of the enterobacteria such as E. coli (Wong, 2005). The ability of bacteria to ferment carbohydrates is also a way to discriminate them during identific ation as fewer bacteria are able to use disaccharides like lactose and sucrose as a source of energy. This can be detected by checking for release of gaseous by products and metabolic chemicals that are released during the process of oxidation and fermentation of sugars. These tests described in the context above were carried out under standard conditions and results were recorded. Results Table 1: shows test results for Colony Morphology for 10 unknown bacterial cultures A to J. Table 2: shows test results for 18 different bacterial identification tests for unknown cultures A to J. Urease, indole, citrate, oxidase, methyl red and Voges-Proskauer test were only carried out for gram negative strains of bacteria and the endospores were only tested for gram positive bacteria. Microphotographs showing cell morphologies and gram (+/-) strains for cultures C, D and F are shown in the appendix. For culture C it can be seen that the cells are arranged in Ã¢â¬Å"grape likeÃ¢â¬ structures whereas C is arranged in packets of four. It can also be seen that culture F it can be seen that the cells were single and in chains. Discussion Organism A and B are both gram positive rods that gave positive results for anaerobic, catalase and endospores test however they can both be differentiated as organism B is brown in colour and a glucose fermenter whereas organism A is orange in colour and a non-glucose fermenter. Organism B was in a cooked meat liquid broth which also indicates that the bacterium maybe part of the Clostridium species that have a few pathogenic bacteria that are responsible for food poisoning and tetanus. Organism A is therefore Bacillus Cereus some bacterium in this species are harmless whereas others are pathogenic that may cause foodborne illnesses such as nausea, vomiting and diarrhoea. Organism C has the morphology of pale yellow cocci clusters arranged in packets of four. It is a gram positive bacterium that also shows positive results for glucose fermentation and the catalase test show characteristics of Staphylococcus species which include pathogenic bacteria that causes skin infections, pneum onia and food poisoning. Organism C appeared in clusters that were Ã¢â¬Å"grape likeÃ¢â¬ and is also a gram positive cocci and has a positive result for catalase however it does not ferment carbohydrates but shows positive test results for their metabolic chemical produced and hereby conveying characteristics of Micrococcus species these bacteria are very rarely disease causing and if so some may cause chronic cutaneous infections (Breed and Murray, 1957). Organism E has a white flat mycelial morphology and it is a gram positive glucose fermenter therefore it is a part of the Streptomyces genera that are known to inhibit the soil and causes the common scab in root vegetables. Organism F is a clear gram negative rod bacterium that is glucose and lactose fermenter and produces metabolic chemicals for glucose, lactose. It also produced negative results for tests urease, gelatin, oxidase, Voges-Proskauer (VP) and indole however it showed positive results for catalase, citrate and methyl red and anaerobic tests as shown in figure 2. Analysing these results organism F can be identified as Escherichia coli that consist of many different strains some of which can cause urinary tract infections, diarrhoea, anaemia and even kidney failure. Organism G is a gram negative rod that produces metabolic chemicals for all three carbohydrates glucose, lactose and sucrose however bubbles were only present for lactose and sucrose. It also shows positive results for tests urease, indole anaerobic and VP but negative results for catalase, oxidase, gelatin and methyl red. Organism G showed similar results to organism F however unlike organism F it is urease positive therefore it can be a bacterium from the Proteus genera that also contain a few pathogenic bacteria that can cause urinary tract infections, kidney stones and cystitis. Organism H is only a glucose fermenter but does not produce any metabolic chemicals. It demonstrates positive test results for urease, gelatin, citrate, anaerobic catalase and oxidase but negative for both methyl red and VP as well as indole tests. It is possible that this bacterium maybe be a part of the Pseudomonas genera with different bacterial strains that may cause respiratory tract infections, dermatitis and bone and joint infections. Organism I is also a gram negative rod and had a clear pigmentation on an agar medium that is a glucose fermenter but however it produces metabolic chemicals for glucose, lactose and sucrose. It also produces positive results when being tested for citrate, anaerobic, catalase and methyl red but not for urease, gelatin, indole, oxidase and VP this indicates that organism I could be Salmonella typhimurium a pathogenic bacteria that causes gastroenteritis that leads to diarrhoea. Organism J is another gram negative bacterium that produces no bubbles for glucose, lactose or sucrose fermentation but produces metabolic chemicals for glucose and sucrose. It is also positive for gelatin, citrate, anaerobic, catalase and VP however it is negative for urease, indole, oxidase and methyl red tests. The red pigmentation of the bacterial culture and the other tests results indicates that organism J maybe Serratia marcescens that are associated with many different types of diseases some of which in clude bacteraemia, sepsis and meningitis. In order to conduct more specific identification of these bacteria further tests can be carried out that will help to distinguish each bacterium more accurately. Other tests that can be carried out include starch hydrolysis, lipid hydrolysis, motility (SIM) deeps, beta galactosidase, nitrate, coagulase, mannitol salt, osmotic pressure and haemolysis. References Barrow, G. I., Feltham, K. A. R. (1993). Crowan and SteelÃ¢â¬â¢s manual for the identification of medical bacteria: classification and nomenclature. 1-6. United Kingdom: Cambridge university press. Breed, R. S., Murray, G. D. E., Smith, N. R. (1957). BergeyÃ¢â¬â¢s manual of determinative bacteriology. 695- 800. United States of America: Baltimore Williams and Wilkins co. Cullimore, D. R. (2000). Practical atlas for bacterial identification: initial stages of the identification of the bacterial culture. 1-7. United States of America: CRC press LLC; Harvey, R. A., Champe, P.C., Fisher, B.D. (2001). Microbiology: identification of bacteria. 24-27. United Stated of America: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins. Janda, J.M., Abbott, S. L. (2002). Bacterial identification for publication: when enough is enough? Journal of clinical microbiology. Vol. 40 no. 6, (1887-1891). Wong, T. (2005). Introduction to microbiology laboratory exercises for Allied Heath students: The IMViC tests. 48-50. United States of America: Author House. Appendix Culture C Culture D Culture F